DEPARTMENT FOR TRANSPORT

SCOTTISH EXECUTIVE

NATIONAL ASSEMBLY FOR WALES




ROAD CASUALTIES
GREAT BRITAIN 2006



Published September 2007




London: The Stationery Office
Department for Transport
Great Minster House,
76 Marsham Street
London SW1P 4DR
Telephone
Internet service http://www.dft.gov.uk/


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Anil Bhagat
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Rashmeeta Singh
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Preface

This is the 2006 edition of Road Casualties Great Britain 2006: Annual Report (RCGB) renamed
from "Road Accidents Great Britain – The Casualty Report". It presents statistics, collected to an
agreed national standard, about personal injury road accidents and their consequent casualties.
Some 50 data items are collected for each accident, including the time and location of the
accident, the types of vehicle involved, what they were doing at the time of the accident, as well as
some information on the drivers and casualties involved. These statistics are used to inform public
debate on matters of road safety and to provide both a local and national perspective for road
safety problems and their remedies.

The first edition of this report covered road casualty numbers in 1951. At that time, there were 4.7
million vehicles in use, and the police recorded 178,000 personal injury road accidents. In 2006, the
vehicle population stood at 33 million and there were 189,000 injury accidents. Thus, while the
vehicle stock has increased sevenfold, the number of injury accidents has increased by about a fifth.
Between 1951 and 2006, 309,144 people were killed and 17.6 million persons were injured in
accidents on British roads. Most of the casualties were slightly injured, and the numbers of people
killed and seriously injured each year have been reducing; however, this is still a serious problem.
Against this background, in 2000 the government announced a new road safety strategy and
casualty reduction targets for 2010 with particular emphasis on child casualties. This volume gives
the baseline averages to be used in monitoring these new targets, and the first article in this edition
reports progress to date.

The national road accident statistics are collected and published partly to inform public debate and
partly to provide the basis for determining and monitoring effective road safety policies. The credible
monitoring of targeted reductions requires that data be reported consistently and accurately. Local
and national government, and local police forces, work closely to achieve a common reporting
standard. A complex devolved reporting system such as that operated in Great Britain will never
produce perfect results, but the high standards that are achieved reflect the efforts of local authorities
and police forces to report to the standard national requirement. However, readers should note that,
while very few, if any, fatal accidents do not become known to the police, there is evidence that an
appreciable proportion of non-fatal injury accidents are not reported to the police and therefore are not
included in this publication. In addition, research has shown that up to a fifth of casualties reported to
the police are not included in the statistical return. Moreover, studies also show that the police tend to
underestimate the severity of injury because of the difficulty in distinguishing severity at the scene of
the accident. The Department is undertaking further research to investigate whether levels of
reporting have changed. Further information on levels of reporting can be found on the Department’s
website at:
http://www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/statistics/datatablespublications/accidents

In addition to the STATS19 data, other data sources directly related to road safety have been used to
compile this book. These include death registrations and coroners' reports, as well as traffic and
vehicle registration data. More detail on traffic and vehicles can be obtained from the Department's
annual publication Transport Statistics Great Britain.

Copies of the full RCGB report (in PDF format) and all tables (in Excel format) are available from the
Department’s website:
http://www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/statistics/datatablespublications/accidents/casualtiesgbar

Further information can be obtained from:
Mr Anil Bhagat,
Department for Transport
Zone 3/19, Great Minster House,
76 Marsham Street, London SW1P 4DR
Telephone:
E-mail:


                          1
Contents


                                              Page

Articles

1. Review of progress towards the 2010 casualty reduction targets               6
2. A valuation of accident, casualty costs and insurance claims data             22
3. Drinking and driving                                    26
4. Contributory factors to road accidents                           35
5. Hit and run accidents                                   51
6. The use of hospital data on road accidents                         60

Notes                                             73

Notes to individual main tables                                75

Definitions, symbols and conventions                             79


List of charts and tables
Charts

1a    Indices of population, vehicle stock, motor traffic and casualties: 1949-2006    84
1b    Indices of population, vehicle stock, motor traffic and casualties: 1996-2006    84
2a    Indices of casualties by road user type: Killed or seriously injured: 1996-2006   85
2b    Indices of casualties by road user type: All severities: 1996-2006         85
3a    Indices of casualties by age band: Killed or seriously injured: 1996-2006      86
3b    Indices of casualties by age band: All severities: 1996-2006            86
4a    Indices of casualties by road user type: Built-up roads:
     Killed or seriously injured: 1996-2006                       87
4b    Indices of casualties by road user type: Non built-up roads:
     Killed or seriously injured: 1996-2006                       87
5a    Casualty rates by hour of day and day of week: All severities:
     Children (0-15 years): 2006                             88
5b    Casualty rates by hour of day and day of week: All severities:
     Adults (16 years and over): 2006                          88

Tables

Part I Trends: 1994-1998 average and 1999 to 2006 (unless stated)

General

1a    Vehicle population, traffic and road length: 1996 - 2006              90
1b    Road traffic by vehicle type and road class: 2005 - 2006 and 1994-98 average    91
2     Population, vehicle population, index of vehicle mileage, accidents and
     casualties: by road user type and severity: 1930 - 2006               92




                             2
Accidents

3     Accidents and accident rates: by road class and severity               93
4     Accidents: by road class, speed limit and severity                  94

Casualties

5a    Male casualties: by built-up and non built-up roads, road class and severity     95
5b    Female casualties: by built-up and non built-up roads, road class and severity    96
5c    All casualties: by built-up and non built-up roads, road class and severity      97
6a    Male casualties: by road user type and severity                    98
6b    Female casualties: by road user type and severity                   99
6c    All casualties: by road user type and severity                    100
7a    Male casualties: killed or seriously injured: by road user type and age       101
7b    Female casualties: killed or seriously injured: by road user type and age      102
7c    All casualties: killed or seriously injured: by road user type and age        103
8     Casualties: by time of accident and severity: 1996 - 2006              104
9     Casualty rates: by road user type and severity: 1996 - 2006             104

Vehicles and drivers involved

10    Vehicles involved and involvement rates: by vehicle type and severity of
     accident: 1996 - 2006                                105
11    Breath tests and breath test failures: by drivers and riders involved in
     accidents: 1996 - 2006                                106

Part II Detailed tables 2006 (unless stated)

General

12    Accidents, vehicles and casualties: casualties by severity: by road class,
     built-up and non built-up roads                           107
13    Accidents and casualties: by severity, road type and speed limit           108

Accidents

14    Accidents: by severity, number of casualties involved, built-up and non built-up
     roads and road class                                 109
15a    Accidents: by daylight and darkness, road surface condition, built-up and non
     built-up roads and severity                             110
15b    Casualties: by daylight and darkness, road surface condition, built-up and non
     built-up roads and severity                             110
16a    Accidents: by daylight and darkness, weather condition, built-up and non built-
     up roads and severity                                111
16b    Casualties: by daylight and darkness, weather condition, built-up and non built-
     up roads and severity                                111
17    Accidents: by daylight and darkness, road surface condition, built-up and non
     built-up roads, speed limit and street lighting                   112
18    Accidents: by daylight and darkness, lighting conditions, special conditions and
     carriageway hazards                                 113
19    Accidents: by junction type, built-up and non built-up roads and severity      113
20    Single vehicle accidents: by object hit off carriageway: built-up and non built-up
     roads and severity                                  114
21    Accidents: by number of vehicles involved, built-up and non built-up roads,
     road class and severity                               115




                             3
Accidents (continued)

22   Accidents involving pedestrians and one vehicle: by severity and vehicle type    116
23a   Accidents, vehicle user and pedestrian casualties in urban areas:
    by combination of vehicles involved                         117
23b   Accidents, vehicle user and pedestrian casualties in rural areas:
    by combination of vehicles involved                         118
23c   Accidents, vehicle user and pedestrian casualties in all areas:
    by combination of vehicles involved                         119

Casualties

24   Casualties: by built-up and non built-up roads and motorways, severity and
    road user type                                    120
25   Casualties in accidents involving vehicles of different types: by built-up and non
    built-up roads, road class and severity                       121
26   Casualty and accident rates: by urban and rural roads, road class, road user
    type, severity and pedestrian involvement                      122
27   Number of casualties: by accident and casualty severity and road user type      123
28   Casualties and casualty rates: by month, road user type and severity         124
29a   Casualties: by day, road user type and hour of day                  125
29b   Casualties: killed or seriously injured: by day, road user type and hour of day   126
29c   Casualties: all days: by severity, road user type and hour of day          127
30a   Casualties: by age band, road user type and severity                 128
30b   Casualties: by age band, road user type and severity: 1994-98 average        129
31   Casualty rates: by age band, road user type and severity               130
32   Pedestrian casualties: location by age band and by severity             131
33   Pedestrian casualties: by location, age, road crossing type and severity       132
34   Casualties: by age, road user type and severity                   133
35   Casualties in cars: by severity, age, seating position, built-up and
    non built-up roads                                  134

Drivers and vehicles involved

36   School pupil casualties on journeys to and from school: by road user type,
    severity, gender and age                               135
37   Breath tests and breath test failures: all drivers and riders involved, by day of
    week and time of day                                 136
38a   Drivers: by gender, number injured, road user type and age              138
38b   Drivers: by gender, number injured, road user type and age:
    1994 - 1998 average                                 139
39   Breath tests and breath test failures: by road user type and age           140
40   Vehicles: by accident severity, vehicle type and vehicle population         141
41a   Vehicles: by vehicle type, built-up and non built-up roads, road class and
    accident severity                                  142
41b   Vehicles: by vehicle type, built-up and non built-up roads, road class and
    accident severity: 1994-98 average                          143
42   Vehicles involvement rates: by vehicle type, urban and rural roads, road class,
    accident severity and traffic                            144
43   Vehicles: by junction type, vehicle type, built-up and non built-up roads      145
44   Vehicles skidding or overturning, and towing: by road surface condition, special
    conditions at site and vehicle type                         146
45   Vehicles involved in accidents: by vehicle type and manoeuvre            147




                            4
Area comparisons

46a   Casualties: by road user type, severity and local authority           148
46b   Casualties: by road user type, severity and local authority: 1994-98 average  152
47   Casualties: by Government Office region, country and severity:
    1994-98 average, 1999 - 2006                          156
48   Casualties: by built-up and non built-up roads, road class, Government Office
    region and severity                               157

United Kingdom

49   Casualties: by severity, road user type and country: United Kingdom       158

Mortality

50   Deaths: by age and gender, from all causes, all accidental deaths and all
    road deaths: 2005                                159

International comparisons

51   International comparisons of road deaths: number and rates for different road
    users: by selected countries: 2005                       160

Intermodal comparisons

52   Casualty rates by mode: 1996 - 2005                       162

Foreign registered vehicles

53   Accidents, vehicles and casualties: by vehicle type and foreign registration  163

Calendar of events affecting road safety and traffic                  164

Review topics 1951 - 2005                                169

Research commissioned by the Department for Transport during 2006            172

Accident statistics report form (MG NSRF)                        173

Index of topics                                     177




                            5
1. Review of progress towards the 2010 casualty reduction targets

Rashmeeta Singh and Linden Francis, Transport Statistics: Road Safety, Department for
Transport

Summary

This article shows progress towards the Government’s casualty reduction targets for Great Britain
and reviews the main trends in road casualties in 2006 compared with recent years, based on
information about accidents reported to the police.

In 2000, the Government published a safety strategy in Tomorrow’s Roads Safer for Everyone. By
2010, the aim is to achieve, compared with the average for 1994–98:

•  A 40% reduction in the number of people killed or seriously injured (KSI) in road accidents;
•  A 50% reduction in the number of children killed or seriously injured (children are defined as
  being those aged under 16);
•  A 10% reduction in the slight casualty rate, expressed as the number of people slightly injured
  per 100 million vehicle kilometres

Compared with the 1994–98 average baseline, in 2006

•  The number of people killed or seriously injured was under 32 thousand, 33 per cent below the
  baseline (Table 1a).
•  The number of children killed or seriously injured was 52 per cent below the baseline.
•  The slight casualty rate was 28 per cent below the baseline.
•  The number of people killed was 11 per cent below the 1994–98 baseline.
•  The number of children killed was 35 per cent below the 1994–98 baseline.
•  In this period the traffic has risen by an estimated 15 per cent.


Total killed or seriously injured casualties
(Target reduction 40 per cent from the 1994–98 average)

Table 1a gives figures for casualties in accidents reported to the police and progress against
targets. Charts 1a–1c show progress to date on the casualty reduction targets. Table 1b shows
progress towards the overall KSI target for particular road user types. With the exception of
motorcycle users, the percentage reductions from the 1994–98 average baseline fall in the range
of 30–40 per cent. The number of motorcycle KSI user casualties is almost the same as in the
baseline. Over this period, motorcycle traffic has increased by 33 per cent, and car traffic by 12 per
cent.




                         6
Table 1a: All casualties by severity and progress against 2010 targets: GB 2006

                                                       2006:
                                                    Percentage change
                                 Number                   over


                1994-98                                       1994-98
                average        2004      2005               2005
                                            2006            average

Casualties
Killed              3,578      3,221      3,201                 -1
                                            3,172              -11
Serious             44,078     31,130      28,954                 -1
                                            28,673              -35
Slight             272,272     246,489     238,862                 -5
                                           226,559              -17
All               319,928     280,840     271,017                 -5
                                           258,404              -19
     1
Traffic              4,443     5,025        5,038                1
                                            5,110              15


         2
Casualty Rate
KSI                  11        7        6                -2
                                              6              -42
Slight                61        49        47                -6
                                             44              -28
All                  72        56        54                -6
                                             51              -30

Casualty reduction targets
KSI casualties          47,656     34,351      32,155                 -1
                                            31,845              -33
Child KSI casualties       6,860      3,905      3,472                 -5
                                            3,294              -52
Slight casualty rate 2        61       49        47                 -6
                                              44              -28
1 100 million vehicle kilometres.
2 Rate per 100 million vehicle kilometres.




Table 1b: Killed or seriously injured casualties by road user type: GB 2006

                                                      2006:
                                                 Percentage change
                        Num ber                           over
                                                              1994-98
              1994-98                                     1994-98    average
              average      2004      2005               2005
                                       2006             average     Traffic


Pedestrians         11,669      7,478      7,129               -1
                                       7,051                -40      -
Pedal cyclists        3,732      2,308      2,360                3
                                       2,442                -35      13
Motorcycle users       6,475      6,648      6,508                0
                                       6,484                0      33
Car users          23,254     16,144     14,617               -2
                                     14,254                 -39      12
Bus/coach users         716      488       363                17
                                        426                -40      8
Other road users       1,810      1,285      1,178                1
                                       1,188                -34      -


All road users        47,656     34,351     32,155               -1
                                     31,845                 -33      15




                                     7
              Chart 1a: Killed or seriously injured casualties: 1994-2006
60,000

                                       1994-1998 baseline average
50,000


40,000
        KSI casualties

30,000

                             Average annual rate of reduction required from 1996
20,000


10,000

  0
  1994      1996     1998     2000   2002    2004    2006    2008     2010




           Chart 1b: Killed or seriously injured child casualties: 1994-2006


 8,000         Child KSI casualties
                                       1994-1998 baseline average
 7,000

 6,000
                                          Average annual rate of reduction
 5,000
                                          required from 1996
 4,000

 3,000

 2,000

 1,000

     0
     1994    1996     1998     2000   2002    2004     2006     2008      2010




        Chart 1c: Rate of slightly injured casualties per 100 million vehicle kilometres:
                          1994-2006

  70
                                       1994-1998 baseline average
  60

                 Slight casualty rate
  50
                                         Average annual rate of reduction
                                            required from 1996
  40

  30

  20

  10

   0
   1994      1996     1998     2000   2002    2004     2006    2008     2010




                                 8
Chart 1d shows the proportion of KSI casualties by road user type. The most significant change is
that the proportion of motorcycle casualties has increased from 14 to 20 per cent.

Comparisons with 2005 and the 1994–98 baseline average by road user type

•  The number of pedestrian KSI casualties on Britain’s roads in 2006 fell by 1 per cent compared
  with 2005 to a level 40 per cent below the baseline.
•  The number of pedal cyclist KSI casualties rose by 3 per cent compared to 2005, but is still 35
  per cent below the baseline
•  KSI casualties among motorcycle users are at the same level as 2005 and the baseline.


Chart 1d: Proportion of killed or seriously injured casualties by road user type: baseline (1994–98
average) and 2006: GB

          1994-98 Baseline                           2006

      Other road users                       Other road users
          5%                              5%
                                                Pedestrians
                   Pedestrians                         22%
                     24%




                                                     Pedal Cyclists
                                                       8%
                               Car users
                       Pedal Cyclists
                                45%
Car users                    8%
 49%


                                                  Motorcycle users
                   Motorcycle users
                                                    20%
                      14%




Table 1c shows changes in KSI casualties for different road types. Since 2005, casualties have
increased by 1 per cent on urban roads, but have decreased by 3 per cent on rural roads. Over this
period, traffic on urban roads has increased by 0.3 per cent and on rural roads by 2 per cent.

Comparisons with 2005 and the 1994–98 baseline average by road type

•  The number of KSI casualties on motorways in 2006 was 23 per cent below the baseline.
  These casualties also fell by 8 per cent compared with 2005.
•  The number of KSI casualties on urban roads in 2006 has fallen 35 per cent since the baseline
  period.
•  The number of KSI casualties on rural roads (excluding motorways) in 2006, had decreased by
  31 per cent since the baseline.




                                  9
Table 1c: Killed or seriously injured casualties by road type: GB 2006

                                                          2006:
                                                    Percentage change
                            Num ber                           over

                 1994-98                                          1994-98
                 average       2004       2005                 2005
                                               2006             average


                   1,516      1,301      1,267                    -8
Motorw ay                                         1,165                  -23

Urban roads
  A roads             11,797      7,908      7,200                    1
                                             7,308                  -38
  Other              14,001      9,722      9,362                    1
                                             9,452                  -32
  All               25,798     17,630      16,562                    1
                                             16,760                  -35

Rural roads
  A roads             11,682      8,683      8,237                    -4
                                             7,887                  -32
  Other              8,561      6,719      6,073                    -1
                                             6,031                  -30
  All               20,243     15,402      14,310                    -3
                                             13,918                  -31


                  47,656     34,351      32,155                    -1
All Roads                                        31,845                  -33


Chart 1e: Proportion of killed or seriously injured casualties by road type: baseline (1994–98 average)
and 2006: GB
          1994 - 98 baseline average
                                                   2006
                Motorway
                 3%                                   Motorway
                                                     4%
   Rural Other                                Rural Other
                         Urban A
      18%                                                     Urban A
                                          19%
                          25%
                                                             23%




                                   Rural
Rural A
                                   25%
  25%

                            Urban Other
                                                               Urban Other
                            29%
                                                               29%




Children killed or seriously injured
(Target reduction 50 per cent from the 1994–98 average)

Table 1d shows progress on child casualties by road user type, and Table 1e gives details by type,
and age, and gender. Chart 1f shows child KSI casualties by type and gender.

Comparison with 2005 and the 1994–98 baseline average for children:

•     The number of child pedestrian KSI casualties on Britain’s roads in 2006 fell by 5 per cent
     compared with 2005 and to a level 51 per cent below the baseline.
•     The number of child pedal cyclist KSI casualties in 2006 also fell by 5 per cent compared with
     2005, and decreased by 55 per cent since the baseline.
•     The number of child car user KSI casualties in 2006 was 54 per cent below the baseline. There
     was no change compared with 2005.
•     Almost 3 out of 5 child pedestrian KSI casualties in 2006 were male, with nearly six times as
     many male child pedal cyclists killed or seriously injured as females (Chart 1f)


                                      10
Table 1d: Children1 killed or seriously injured casualties by road user type: GB 2006

                                          2006:
                                     Percentage change
                      Num ber                over


                1994-98                           1994-98
                average   2004    2005          2005
                                 2006           average

Pedestrians           4,167  2,339    2,134            -5
                                 2,025            -51
Pedal cyclists          1,129   577    527             -5
                                  503             -55
Car users            1,303   759    595             0
                                  596             -54
Other road users         261    230    216           -21
                                  170             -35


All road users          6,860  3,905    3,472            -5
                                 3,294            -52

1 Casualties aged 0-15.




Table 1e: Children1 killed or seriously injured casualties by road user type: GB 2006

                                                 2006:
                                              Percentage change
                            Num ber                 over

                     1994-98                             1994-98
                     average    2004    2005            2005
                                      2006             average

           0-4          571     250     247             -3       -58
Pedestrians                                 239
           5-8         1,153    508     467             -7       -62
                                      434
           9 - 11        1,028    518     498            -13       -58
                                      431
           12 - 15       1,415   1,063     922             0       -35
                                      921
           All Children     4,167   2,339    2,134             -5       -51
                                      2,025

           0-4          19      7     10            -40       -68
Pedal cyclists                                6
           5-8          222     83     72             8       -65
                                       78
           9 - 11        302     122     144            -10       -57
                                      129
           12 - 15        587     365     301             -4       -51
                                      290
           All Children     1,129    577     527             -5       -55
                                      503

           0-4          276     138     118             4       -55
Car users                                  123
           5-8          262     141     101             5       -60
                                      106
           9 - 11        213     117     107            -31       -65
                                       74
           12 - 15        553     363     269             9       -47
                                      293
           All Children     1,303    759     595             0       -54
                                      596

           0-4          888     408     382             -1       -57
All road users                               378
           5-8         1,657    749     656             -4       -62
                                      627
           9 - 11        1,592    785     774            -16       -59
                                      653
           12 - 15       2,722   1,963    1,660             -1       -40
                                      1,636
           All Children     6,860   3,905    3,472             -5       -52
                                      3,294

           Male         4,402   2,562    2,233             -6       -52
   of w hich                               2,107
           Female        2,457   1,343    1,238             -4       -52
                                      1,187


1 Casualties aged 0-15.




                             11
Chart 1f: Children killed or seriously injured by gender: GB 2006


 2,500
                           Male
                           Female

 2,000




 1,500




 1,000




  500




    0
          Pedestrians         Pedal cyclists         Car user        All road users




Rate of slight casualties per 100 million vehicle kilometres
(Target reduction 10 per cent from the 1994–98 average)

Table 1f: Slight casualties by road user type and slight casualty rate: GB 2006

                                              2006:
                                           Percentage change
                          Num ber                 over


                 1994-98                              1994-98
                 average     2004      2005           2005
                                      2006           average


Pedestrians            34,874    27,403     26,152           -8
                                     23,931            -31
Pedal cyclists           20,653    14,340     14,201           -3
                                     13,754            -33
Motorcycle users          17,547    18,993     18,316           -8
                                     16,842             -4
Car users             180,034   167,714    163,685            -4
                                     156,746            -13
Bus/coach users           8,883     8,332     7,557          -10
                                      6,827            -23
Other road users          10,281     9,707     8,951           -5
                                      8,459            -18
All road users          272,272   246,489    238,862            -5
                                     226,559            -17

Slight casualty rate 1         61      49      47           -6
                                       44             -28


1 Rate for all road users per 100 million vehicle kilometres.


Table 1f shows progress on slight casualties by road user type, and Table 1g gives similar
information for casualty rates. Table 1h shows progress on slight casualties by road type. Chart 1g
illustrates the percentage changes in slight casualty rates from the baseline to 2006.




                                  12
Table 1g: Slight casualties rates by road user type: GB 2006

                                                   2006:
                                              Percentage change
                          Num ber                      over

                  1994-98                                  1994-98
                  average     2004     2005               2005
                                       2006              average

Pedestrians 1
         Urban roads       17      12      12                -9
                                        11                -37
         Rural roads      2.2     1.6      1.5               -8
                                        1.3               -38


Pedal cyclists             509      371     321                -7
                                        299                -41
Motorcycle users            453     368     337                -3
                                        326                -28
Car users                50      42      41                -5
                                        39                -22
Bus/coach users            178      159     146               -14
                                        126                -29
Light goods vehicle users        14      9      9                -5
                                         8               -39
Heavy goods vehicle users        11      8      8               -12
                                         7               -30

1 Slight casualty rates for pedestrians are calculated using total vehicle kilometres for all vehicles by road types.



Chart 1g Percentage change in slight casualty rates between the 1994–98 average
and 2006: GB


  0


  -5


-10


-15


-20

                                        Car users
-25


-30                            Motorcycles users           Bus/Coach
                                                  users
-35

                                                        Goods Vehicle
      Urban
               Rural
-40                                                       users
     Pedestrian
              Pedestrian
                       Pedal cycles
-45




                                  13
Table 1h: Slight casualties rates by road type: GB 2006

                                      2006:
                                   Percentage change
                     Num ber              over

             1994-98                          1994-98
             average       2004  2005         2005
                              2006          average


                15       13   13          -4
Motorw ay                            12           -15

Urban roads
  A roads          100       82   79          -8
                                73           -27
  Other           91       72   71          -5
                                67           -26
  All            95       76   74          -6
                                70           -27

Rural roads
  A roads          39       32   31          -6
                                29           -26
  Other           64       54   52          -7
                                49           -23
  All            47       39   38          -6
                                36           -25

        1        61       49   47          -6
All Roads                            44           -28

1 Rate per 100 million vehicle kilometres.


Comparison with 2005 and the 1994–98 average, for slight casualties:

•     The number of pedestrian slight casualties was 31 per cent below the baseline.
•     The number of pedal cyclist slight casualties in 2006 was 33 per cent below the baseline. The
     rate of slight casualties among pedal cyclists was 41 per cent below the baseline.
•     The number of slight casualties among motorcycle users has decreased by 4 per cent from the
     baseline, and 8 per cent from 2005. The slight casualty rate was 28 per cent below the
     baseline.
•     The number of slight casualties among car users in 2006 was 13 per cent lower than the
     baseline, and the slight casualties rate was 22 per cent lower.
•     Care should be exercised in comparing the rate of slight bus and coach user casualties with
     that for other road user groups. The rates given in Table 1g are per 100 million vehicle
     kilometres, and this type of vehicle has a much higher occupancy than other road vehicles.
     Comparisons of rates per billion passenger kilometres are given in Table 52 of the main tables.
•     The slight casualty rate for motorways was 15 per cent lower than the baseline. The slight
     casualty rate for urban and rural roads was 27 and 25 per cent lower than the baseline
     respectively.

Casualties by road user type

Table 1i shows casualties by gender and child casualties.

•     In 2006, male casualties made up 58 per cent per cent of all casualties but 76 per cent of
     those killed.
•     In 2006 the numbers of male and female casualties were 17 per cent and 22 per cent
     respectively lower than the 1994–98 baseline. Over the same period the number of men killed
     has fallen by only 6 per cent compared to 25 per cent for women.
•     The number of child casualties fell by 9 per cent in 2006 compared to 2005. However, child
     fatalities increased by 20 per cent in 2006 compared to 2005. The total number of fatalities
     among children was 169, 28 more than 2005, but about the same level as 2004 (166) which at
     that time was the lowest ever recorded figure.




                              14
Table 1i: All Casualties by severity: GB 2006

                                                          2006:
                                                       Percentage change
                              Num ber                         over


                    1994-98                                        1994-98
                    average       2004      2005                 2005
                                              2006               average
Male
        Killed          2,547       2,433     2,416                   -1
                                              2,401                   -6
        Serious         28,498    21,428       20,026                   -1
                                             19,886                   -30
        Slight         150,861    139,312      135,355                   -5
                                             127,925                   -15
        Total         181,906    163,173      157,797                   -5
                                             150,212                   -17

Fem ale
        Killed          1,030       788       785                   -2
                                               771                   -25
        Serious         15,574       9,694     8,923                   -2
                                              8,785                   -44
        Slight         121,297    107,091      103,379                   -5
                                             98,555                   -19
        Total         137,900    117,573      113,087                   -4
                                             108,111                   -22

All1
        Killed          3,578       3,221     3,201                   -1
                                              3,172                   -11
        Serious         44,078    31,130       28,954                   -1
                                             28,673                   -35
        Slight         272,272    246,489      238,862                   -5
                                             226,559                   -17
        Total         319,928    280,840      271,017                   -5
                                             258,404                   -19

of w hom children 2
          Killed         260        166       141                  20
                                               169                   -35
          Serious        6,600       3,739     3,331                   -6
                                              3,125                   -53
          Slight        37,494    27,095       24,654                  -10
                                             22,229                   -41
          Total        44,354    31,000       28,126                   -9
                                             25,523                   -42

1 Includes cases w here gender not know n
2 Casualties aged 0-15.


Chart 1h shows the distribution of 2006 casualties by road user type for men and women. Female
casualties are twice as likely to be car passengers as men, but less likely to be injured as
motorcycle or pedal cycle users.

Chart 1h: All casualties by road user type and gender: GB 2006

                Male                                Female
      Other road users,
                                           Other road users,
          6%
                                              1%
                    Pedestrians, 12%                            Pedestrians, 12%
    Bus or coach, 2%                              Bus or coach, 4%

                                                             Pedal cyclists, 3%
 Car passenger,
    15%                               Car passenger,                   Motorcycle user,
                         Pedal cyclists, 9%
                                       30%                         2%




                           Motorcycle user,
                             14%




                                                          Car driver, 47%
      Car driver, 43%




                                  15
Pedestrians

Table 1j shows pedestrian casualties in 2006 by age. Pedestrian casualties account for 12 per cent
of all road casualties and 21 per cent of all road deaths. Total pedestrian casualties fell to 33 per
cent below the baseline average in 2006, with serious casualties 40 per cent below the baseline.
Reductions are more pronounced in some age groups than others. Child pedestrians aged up to
fifteen were the only age group to show an increase in fatalities, compared with 2005 from 63 to 71
(13 per cent). However, the 2006 level remained below that for 2004. Children also saw the biggest
fall for all casualties compared with 2005, a drop of 10 per cent. Child pedestrian casualties
accounted for 33 per cent of all pedestrian casualties. Pedestrian deaths have increased by 1 per
cent from 2005, but remain 33 per cent below the 1994–98 average baseline.

The rate of pedestrian casualties per 100,000 population has been falling and in 2006 was 36 per
cent lower than the baseline. The annual average distance walked by pedestrians in 2006 was less
than 1 per cent below the 1994–98 average. According to the National Travel Survey, the average
distance walked by the individuals in 2006 was 201 miles. This was an increase of 2 per cent
compared with the average distance walked in 2005 (197 miles).

Table 1j: Pedestrian casualties by age: GB 2006

                                             2006:
                                          Percentage change
                            Num ber              over

                      1994-98                        1994-98
                      average  2004    2005         2005
                                      2006         average


Children (0-15)    Killed         133    77     63         13
                                       71           -47
            Serious        4,034  2,262    2,071         -6
                                      1,954           -52
            Slight        14,382  9,895    9,116         -11
                                      8,106           -44
            All          18,548  12,234   11,250         -10
                                      10,131           -45

Adults (16-59)     Killed         398   323     337          -1
                                       334           -16
            Serious        4,318  3,203    3,082         1
                                      3,121           -28
            Slight        15,016  13,256   12,877         -6
                                      12,060           -20
            All          19,732  16,782   16,296         -5
                                      15,515           -21

Adults (over 60)    Killed         471   266     267          0
                                       268           -43
            Serious        2,142  1,213    1,161         1
                                      1,171           -45
            Slight         4,491  3,143    3,001         -6
                                      2,820           -37
            All          7,104  4,622    4,429         -4
                                      4,259           -40

All 1         Killed         1,008   671     671          1
                                       675           -33
            Serious        10,662  6,807    6,458         -1
                                      6,376           -40
            Slight        34,874  27,403   26,152         -8
                                      23,931           -31
            All          46,543  34,881   33,281         -7
                                      30,982           -33

Casualty rate per 100,000 population2
KSI                       21    13     12          -2
                                       12           -42
Slight                     62    47     45          -9
                                       41           -34
All                       82    60     57          -7
                                       53           -36
1 Includes cases w here age not reported.
2 Revised 2004 and 2005 population data .




                             16
Pedal cyclists

Table 1k gives the number of reported pedal cyclist casualties in 2006. Pedal cyclist casualties
have fallen by 34 per cent from the baseline. The number of pedal cyclist deaths in 2006 was 1 per
cent lower than 2005 and 21 per cent lower than the 1994–98 average. However, since pedal cycle
traffic has increased by 4 per cent since 2005, the casualty rate has decreased by more (6 per
cent) since 2005, and is 42 per cent below the baseline.

Table 1k: Pedal cyclist casualties: GB 2006

                                               2006:
                                            Percentage change
                             Num ber               over

                     1994-98                           1994-98
                     average    2004     2005         2005
                                        2006         average

Killed                     186   134      148          -1
                                        146           -21
Serious                    3,546  2,174     2,212         4
                                        2,296           -35
Slight                    20,653  14,340    14,201         -3
                                       13,754           -33

Total                     24,385  16,648    16,561         -2
                                       16,196           -34

           1
Pedal cycle Traffic               41    39      44          4
                                         46           14


Casualty Rate 2
KSI                       92    60      53          0
                                         53           -42
Slight                     509   371      321          -7
                                        299           -41
All                       602   431      374          -6
                                        352           -42

1. 100 million vehicle kilometres.
2. Rate per 100 million vehicle kilometres.




                                17
Motorcycle users

Motorcycle user casualties are shown in Table 1l. Motorcycle users accounted for 9 per cent of all
road traffic casualties but 19 per cent of all fatalities in 2006. Total motorcycle user casualties are 3
per cent below the baseline and 6 per cent lower than in 2005. In spite of motorcycle traffic
decreasing by 5 per cent from 2005 to 2006, KSI figures were almost unchanged, leading to an
increase in the KSI rate of 5 per cent. Fatalities increased by 5 per cent over this period. Since the
1994–98 average baseline motorcycle traffic has risen by 33 per cent, fatalities rose by 28 per cent
over the same period, although serious casualties changed little, leading to a reduction of 25 per
cent in the KSI rate.

Table 1l: Motorcycle user casualties: GB 2006

                                         2006:
                                      Percentage change
                        Num ber              over

                  1994-98                        1994-98
                  average  2004    2005         2005
                                  2006         average


Killed                 467   585     569          5
                                   599           28
Serious                6,008  6,063    5,939         -1
                                  5,885            -2
Slight                17,547  18,993   18,316         -8
                                  16,842            -4


Total                24,023  25,641   24,824         -6
                                  23,326            -3


Motorcycle Traffic 1          39    52     54          -5
                                   52           33


Casualty Rate 2
KSI                  167   129     120          5
                                   126           -25
Slight                 453   368     337          -3
                                   326           -28
All                  621   497     457          -1
                                   452           -27

1 100 million vehicle kilometres.
2 Rate per 100 million vehicle kilometres.




                              18
Car users

Car user casualties, given in Table 1m, were 16 per cent lower in 2006 than the average for 1994–
98. However, as car traffic has increased by 12 per cent since the baseline, the rate of all car user
casualties per 100 million vehicle kilometres was 25 per cent lower than the 1994–98 average.
Both car driver and passenger deaths in 2006 dropped by 4 per cent compared to 2005. However,
compared to the 1994–98 average, car driver deaths have fallen more slowly than for passengers
and were 5 per cent lower than baseline against 14 per cent below for car passengers. Total car
driver and passenger casualties show a similar pattern, with drivers 10 per cent below the baseline
in 2006 and car passenger casualties 26 per cent lower.


Table 1m: Car user casualties: GB 2006

                                             2006:
                                          Percentage change
                           Num ber               over


                   1994-98                           1994-98
                   average    2004    2005          2005
                                      2006         average


          Killed       1,128    1,106    1,109          -4      -5
Drivers                                  1,066
          Serious      13,506    9,296    8,388          -2     -39
                                      8,239
          Slight      113,324   111,643  110,070           -4      -7
                                     105,698
          Total      127,958   122,045  119,567           -4     -10
                                     115,003


          Killed        634     565     566           -4     -14
Passengers                                 546
          Serious      7,985    5,177    4,554          -3     -45
                                      4,403
          Slight      66,710    56,071   53,615          -5     -23
                                     51,048
          Total       75,329    61,813   58,735          -5     -26
                                     55,997


          Killed       1,762    1,671    1,675          -4      -9
All                                    1,612
          Serious      21,492    14,473   12,942          -2     -41
                                     12,642
          Slight      180,034   167,714  163,685           -4     -13
                                     156,746
          Total      203,288   183,858  178,302           -4     -16
                                     171,000


Car traffic1              3,585    3,981    3,972          1      12
                                      4,024

        2
Casualty rate
KSI                     6     4       4          -4     -45
                                       4
Slight                    50    42     41           -5     -22
                                       39
All                     57    46     45           -5     -25
                                       42

1 100 million vehicle kilometres.
2 Rate per 100 million vehicle kilometres.




                                19
Bus and coach users

Table 1n shows casualties among bus and coach users in 2006. The number of bus and coach
user casualties decreased by 8 per cent compared with 2005, and was 24 per cent lower in 2006
than the baseline average. The number of serious injuries was 42 per cent lower than the 1994–98
average. Care should be exercised in comparing the rate of slight bus and coach user casualties
with the rates for other road user groups. The rates given in Table 1n are per 100 million vehicle
kilometres, and this type of vehicle has a much higher occupancy than other road vehicles.
Comparisons of rates per billion passenger kilometres are given in Table 52 in the main tables.

Table 1n: Bus and Coach casualties: GB 2006

                                            2006
                                         Percentage change
                           Num ber              over

                    1994-98                        1994-98
                    average   2004     2005        2005
                                     2006         average


Killed                     20   20      9        111
                                      19            -4
Serious                    696   468     354         15
                                      407           -42
Slight                    8,883  8,332    7,557        -10
                                     6,827          -23


Total                    9,598  8,820    7,920         -8
                                     7,253          -24


Bus/Coach traffic1               50   52      54         0
                                      54            8

        2
Casualty rate
KSI                      14    9      7         18
                                       8           -45
Slight                    178   162     139         -9
                                      126           -29
All                      192   171     146         -8
                                      134           -30

1 100 million vehicle kilometres.
2 Rate per 100 million vehicle kilometres.




                               20
Goods vehicle users

The number of light goods vehicle user casualties in 2006 was 20 per cent lower than the 1994–98
average. However, since light goods traffic has increased by 38 per cent over this period, the
casualty rate has decreased much more, 42 per cent since the baseline. Deaths among light goods
vehicle users have decreased by 20 per cent compared to the 1994–98 average and serious
injuries by 46 per cent.

The number of heavy goods vehicle occupant casualties has decreased by 24 per cent compared
with the average for 1994–98. However, over this period heavy goods vehicle traffic has increased
by 11 per cent, resulting in a reduction of 32 per cent in the overall casualty rate for heavy goods
vehicle occupants. Deaths among heavy goods vehicle users have decreased by 27 per cent and
serious injuries by 35 per cent compared to the 1994–98 average.


Table 1o: Goods vehicle user casualties: GB 2006

                                            2006
                                         Percentage change
                           Num ber              over

                     1994-98                        1994-98
                     average   2004     2005        2005
                                     2006         average


Light goods vehicle
Killed                     65   62      54         -4
                                      52           -20
Serious                    950   569     533         -4
                                      512           -46
Slight                    6,410  5,535    5,461         -2
                                     5,350          -17

Total                    7,424  6,166    6,048         -2
                                     5,914          -20

Light goods traffic 1             467   608     626         3
                                      643            38
        2
Casualty rate
KSI                       2    1      1         -7
                                       1           -60
Slight                     14    9      9         -5
                                       8           -39
All                      16   10      10         -5
                                       9           -42

Heavy goods vehicle
Killed                     53   47      55         -29
                                      39           -27
Serious                    526   359     340         1
                                      344           -35
Slight                    2,760  2,477    2,448        -12
                                     2,147          -22

Total                    3,338  2,883    2,843        -11
                                     2,530          -24


Heavy goods traffic 1             262   294     290         0
                                      291            11
        2
Casualty rate
KSI                       2    1      1         -3
                                       1           -40
Slight                     11    8      8         -12
                                       7           -30
All                      13   10      10         -11
                                       9           -32

1 100 million vehicle kilometres.
2 Rate per 100 million vehicle kilometres.




                               21
2. A valuation of accident, casualty costs and insurance claims data

Linden Francis, Transport Statistics: Road Safety, Department for Transport

Introduction

Since 1993, the valuation of both fatal and non-fatal casualties has been based on a consistent
willingness to pay (WTP) approach. This approach encompasses all aspects of the valuation of
casualties, including the human costs and the direct economic costs, i.e. an amount to reflect the
pain, grief, suffering, lost output as well as the medical costs associated with road accident injuries.

An article in Road Accidents Great Britain 1994 (Kate McMahon, Road Safety Division,
Department for Transport) described the methodology for casualty cost valuation, and, in
particular, the revised non-fatal casualty values. This article provides updated values for 2006
casualties and accidents, and describes the revisions to medical and accident costs.

Fuller information on accident costs will be published as usual in Highways Economic Note No 1:
Valuation of the benefits of prevention of road accidents and casualties. More specific details are
given at the end of this article.

Casualties

The values for the prevention of fatal, serious and slight casualties include the following elements of
cost:

•  loss of output due to injury. This is calculated as the present value of the expected loss of earnings
  plus any non-wage payments (National Insurance contributions, etc.) paid by the employer.

•  ambulance costs and the costs of hospital treatment.

•  human costs, based on WTP values, which represent pain, grief and suffering to the casualty,
  relatives and friends, and, for fatal casualties, the intrinsic loss of enjoyment of life over and above
  the consumption of goods and services.

Accidents

The average value of prevention per injury accident for each level of severity is higher than the
average value per casualty, e.g. value of preventing a fatal accident is greater than the value of a
fatality for two reasons. The first is that an injury accident is classified according to the most severe
casualty but will on average involve more than one casualty – for example, in 2006 a fatal accident on
average involved 1.10 fatalities, 0.34 serious casualties and 0.52 slight casualties. The second reason
is that there are some costs which are part of the valuation of an injury accident but which are not
specific to casualties. These are:

•  costs of damage to vehicles and property

•  costs of police and the administrative costs of accident insurance.




                          22
Valuation of the benefits of prevention of accidents
Table 2a gives the average value of prevention per road accident and per casualty. The total cost–
benefit value of prevention of road accidents in 2006 was estimated to be £18,079 million, of which
13,081 million is attributable to personal injury accidents, with damage-only accidents accounting
for the remainder.

Table 2a: Average value of prevention per casualty and per accident: GB 2006
                             £



                cost per    cost per
Accident/casualty type     casualty    accident


Fatal            1,489,450    1,690,370

Serious            167,360     196,020

Slight             12,900     20,120



Average all Severities     48,170     69,150



Damage only              -      1,780



Table 2b gives the average value of prevention of injury accidents by different types of road.
Seventy-one per cent of accidents occurred on built-up roads, but these accounted for only 56 per
cent of the total value of injury accidents, because they were, on average, less severe than on
other roads, having fewer casualties per accident and a lower proportion of fatal and serious
injuries. Non built-up roads accounted for 24 per cent of accidents and 39 per cent of value, and 4
per cent of accidents with 5 per cent of value occurred on motorways. The lesser severity of
accidents on built-up roads is shown in Table 2b, where the average value of prevention per
accident on built-up roads is less than half the average value on non built-up roads.

Table 2b: Average value of prevention of road accidents by road type: GB 2006
                                            £


              Built-up    Non built-up                 All
Accident type        Roads       Roads     Motorw ays       Roads


Fatal          1,625,440     1,729,690     1,800,580     1,690,370

Serious          186,900      213,450      217,040      196,020

Slight           18,970       22,430      26,600      20,120



All injury         54,020      111,540       79,260      69,150

Damage only         1,660        2,460       2,360       1,780




                         23
Transport Research Laboratory (TRL) reports are available from TRL Ltd, Wokingham, Berkshire
(Tel: , e-mail: ). Information on accident numbers and rates
(rather than costs) may be obtained from two annual DfT/The Stationery Office publications, Road
Casualties Great Britain, and Transport Statistics Great Britain. These and the Highways Economic
Note 1 (HEN1) are published annually on the DfT website at http://www.dft.gov.uk under 'Transport
Statistics/Statistics/Transport accidents and casualties' and 'Road Safety/Economic Assessment'
respectively.

Copies of HEN1 are available from DfT Free Literature; telephone . For further
information, please contact Adam Bell by telephone on or by e-mail on


Motor insurance claims

The data given in Table 2c are the latest available figures from insurance companies’ DTI returns,
the statutory returns which insurers are required to file with the Department of Trade and Industry.
Only insurance companies are obliged to complete the returns, and so the data do not include
business written by Lloyd’s underwriters. The data have been provided by the Association of British
Insurers from the SynTheys Non-Life database of returns.

Table 2c gives claim data for the period 2001–05. The figures are for all insurance claims and will
include those arising from fire or theft as well as from road accidents. Exposure (expressed in
million vehicle years) is the exposure to risk and the product of the number of vehicles insured and
the proportion of the year for which each vehicle was covered. The claim frequency shows the
proportion of policyholders that made a claim.

For further information see the Association of British Insurers website at www.abi.org.uk.




                         24
Table 2c: Collation of motor insurance figures: UK 2001 - 2005


        Exposure     Number                      Annual    Annual
         (million      of  Estimated    Claim        % change   %change
         vehicle     claims    cost of  frequency  Average    in claim  in average
Policy type    years)   (millions)  claims (£m)    (%)  claim (£)  frequency     claim

Private car (comprehensive):
         16.95       2.99    4,644    17.6    1,553
   2001                                        0       2
          17.90      3.05    4,841    17.0    1,590
   2002                                        -4      2
          18.00      3.10    5,174    17.2    1,671
   2003                                        1       5
          18.47      3.06    5,307    16.6    1,734
   2004                                        -4      4
                  3.09           15.9    1,908
   2005     19.48            5,902                  -4      10


Private car (non comprehensive):
          3.26    0.29        756     8.9   2,614
   2001                                        8      -1
          3.35      0.29     846     8.7   2,906
   2002                                        -2      11
          3.31      0.26     889     7.7   3,492
   2003                                       -11      20
          2.94      0.31     862    10.5    2,796
   2004                                       36      -20
                  0.21     850     7.9   3,987
   2005      2.68                                -25      43

Motorcycle:
          0.55      0.04      77     7.1   1,985
   2001                                       20      -24
          0.54      0.03      84     6.4   2,437
   2002                                       -10      23
          0.52      0.04      94     6.9   2,632
   2003                                        8       8
          0.51      0.03      82     6.1   2,639
   2004                                       -11       0
      1
   2005


Commercial vehicle (including fleet):
         4.24      0.95      1,835    22.3    1,939
  2001                                         5       6
          4.46      0.88    1,904    19.8    2,157
   2002                                       -11      11
          4.54      0.85    2,052    18.8    2,407
   2003                                        -5      12
          4.84      0.83    2,157    17.1    2,612
   2004                                        -9      4
                  0.96    2,380    18.6    2,478
   2005      5.16                                 9      -5

All vehicles:
          24.99      4.27    7,311    17.1    1,714
   2001                                        0       2
          26.24      4.25    7,675    16.2    1,804
   2002                                        -5      5
          26.37      4.24    8,210    16.1    1,936
   2003                                        -1      7
          26.75      4.23    8,420    15.8    1,967
   2004                                        -2      2
      1
   2005


1. 2005 data is not available.




                               25
3. Drinking and driving

Penny Allen, Transport Statistics: Road Safety, Department for Transport


Summary

This article examines the subject of drinking and driving. It first explains how drink-drive accidents and
casualties are defined in these statistics. It then sets out the alcohol test limits that apply in the United
Kingdom, followed by a description of the sources of data used to produce the drink-drive estimates,
with a discussion of their reliability. The article concludes with an analysis of the characteristics of
drink-drive accidents and casualties.

•  In 2006, it was estimated that 14,350 casualties (6 per cent of all road casualties) occurred when
  someone was driving while over the legal limit for alcohol. The number of deaths was 540 (17 per
  cent of all road deaths).
•  During the 1980s, the number of KSI (killed or seriously injured) casualties fell by nearly a half,
  from 9,420 in 1980 to 4,850 in 1990. There were some fluctuations from year to year from 1990
  to 2004, but further more significant falls were evident in the last few years. The provisional
  2006 KSI total of 2,530 is about a quarter of the 1980 level, and 4 per cent below the 2005 level.
•  The number of people killed in drink-drive accidents fell to a low of 460 deaths in 1998, but has
  since risen, with an estimated 540 deaths in 2006.
•  The numbers of slight injuries in drink-drive accidents have been showing a broadly rising trend
  since 1993 but again have fallen since 2002. Provisional figures for 2006 suggest a fall of 7 per
  cent since 2005.


Drink-drive limits and definitions

For the purposes of these drink-drive statistics, a drink-drive accident is defined as being an incident
on a public road in which someone is killed or injured and where one or more of the motor vehicle
drivers or riders involved either refused to give a breath test specimen when requested to do so by the
police (other than when incapable of doing so for medical reasons), or one of the following:

   i) failed a roadside breath test by registering over 35 micrograms of alcohol per 100 millilitres of
   breath

   ii) died and was subsequently found to have more than 80 milligrams of alcohol per 100 millilitres
   of blood.

Drink-drive casualties are defined as all road users killed or injured in a drink-drive accident.

However, not all drink-drive accidents will be detected in this way, as there are some drivers involved
for whom neither of the above test results are available, even though they were over the legal limit.
Therefore the Department's statistics are adjusted to allow for this in order to produce a better estimate
of the number of drink-drive accidents and casualties. The reasons for the unavailability of some data
and the methods of adjustment are described in more detail later in this article.




                           26
Blood and breath testing powers

Roadside breath tests were introduced in 1967, and the blood alcohol limit became a legal
requirement at the same time. Evidential breath testing was introduced in 1983 to supplement the
taking of blood samples. Section 6 of the Road Traffic Act (1988) allows the police to test any driver
involved in an accident, whether or not anyone is injured. The act also stipulates that, where there has
not been a road accident, the police can only take a roadside breath test following a moving traffic
offence, or if there is suspicion of alcohol use. A high breath testing rate is acknowledged to have a
deterrent effect upon potential drink-drivers, although research shows that a lower number of carefully
targeted breath tests, which lessen the burden on police resources, can identify a large proportion of
drink-drivers.

In April 1996 the Association of Chief Police Officers in England and Wales (ACPO) adopted a policy
of breath testing all drivers involved in road accidents which the police deal with or attend, whether
injuries are involved or not. Before this, all Scottish police forces, and some in England and Wales,
already operated similar policies, but in some cases for injury accidents only. However, not all drivers
involved in injury road accidents are breath-tested; either because the police do not attend the
accident, or because a driver leaves the scene before a test can be taken, or because they are too
seriously injured to take a test. Roadside breath testing rates after injury accidents can still vary widely
among police forces.


Data sources

Two sources of data are used to assess the extent and characteristics of drink-drive accidents in Great
Britain and a third source provides information on compliance with drink-drive restrictions. These
sources are:

   i) Coroners’ data: Information about the level of alcohol in the blood of road accident fatalities
   aged 16 or over who die within 12 hours of a road accident is provided by coroners in England
   and Wales and by procurators fiscal in Scotland.

   ii) STATS19 breath test data: The personal injury road accident reporting system (STATS19)
   provides data on injury accidents in which the driver or rider survived and was also breath-tested
   at the roadside. If the driver or rider refused to provide a breath test specimen, then they are
   considered to have failed the test unless they are deemed unable to take the test for medical
   reasons.

   (iii) In addition, police force screening breath test data: Information from breath tests carried
   out at the roadside following a moving traffic offence, road accident or suspicion of alcohol use, is
   available for England and Wales from the Home Office.

Once the drink-drive accidents have been identified using coroners’ and STATS19 data, then the
resulting casualties in these accidents are identified from STATS19 data.


Completeness of data and reliability of estimates

Both sources of data from the Police and Coroners on drink-drive accidents are incomplete. In
recognition of the uncertainty associated with the estimates produced from this data the numbers of
accidents and casualties are rounded to the nearest 10 throughout this article.




                          27
In the case of the STATS19 breath test data, some drivers and riders are not breath tested, since there
are always occasions when it is not possible to administer a test to all drivers involved. Some drivers
and riders not tested might have failed if a test could have been administered. Probably as a result of
ACPO’s policy the percentage of drivers tested increased dramatically between 1995 and 1999.
Whereas prior to 1996 less than a third of drivers involved in injury accidents were tested, by 1998 this
had risen to over half and remains at that level.

For many drivers or riders killed in road accidents, a post-mortem blood alcohol level is not available,
either because the casualty died more than twelve hours after the accident, or because no test was
carried out, or because some of the data are not reported to the Department by coroners and
procurators fiscal.

Adjustments to the reported data are required to estimate the actual number of drink-drive accidents
and their related casualties. The estimates published here are based on a method described by Derek
Jones in the 1989 edition of Road Accidents Great Britain (RAGB). This method has two parts:

   a) the number of fatal accidents where a driver or rider died with an illegal alcohol level is
   estimated from the coroners’ and procurators’ fiscal data.

   b) the number of accidents where a surviving driver or rider had an illegal alcohol level is
   estimated from data, based on a calculation of the proportion of these alcohol-related accidents
   which can be identified from the STATS19 breath test data.

Part b) was revised in 1993 in the light of research by Dr J Broughton of the Transport Research
Laboratory (TRL), published in TRL Report PR40 The Actual Number of Non-Fatal Drink-Drive
Accidents. This provided a method which takes into account the fact that relatively more of the drivers
and riders involved in fatal and serious accidents are breath-tested than in slight accidents, whereas
previously a single factor had been used to allow for under-reporting for all accident severities. The
revised estimates were first published in RAGB 1992.

Estimates for 2006 are provisional. As coroners’ data are available for analysis a year later than the
main road accident data, final estimates can only be made eighteen months in arrears. Around 58
per cent expected to be available ultimately were available for inclusion in the provisional
estimates. The provisional estimates for serious and slight accidents depend on breath test data and
do not change in the final estimates. The coroners’ data affect only the numbers of casualties from
fatal accidents and these form a small proportion of serious and slight casualties. The estimates for
fatalities depend mainly on coroners' data and are particularly susceptible to revision between the
provisional and final figures.


Analysis of drink-drive data

Table 3a draws on both STATS19 and coroners’ data to show estimates of the number of people killed
and injured in drink-drive accidents. Chart 3a shows the trend of killed and seriously injured casualties
resulting from drink-drive accidents.




                          28
Table 3a: Estimates of accidents involving illegal alcohol levels and the consequent casualties
adjusted for under reporting: GB 1980 - 2006

                                                                                                          Number

                                  Accidents                                             Casualties
Year                 Fatal         Serious          Slight           Total         Fatal         Serious            Slight           Total

1980                 1,280         5,430          11,860           18,570         1,450             7,970         20,420         29,830
1985                  900         4,900          11,460           17,260         1,040             6,810         19,380         27,220
1990                  650         2,910          9,650           13,210          760             4,090         15,550         20,400
1995                  460         2,140          7,590           10,180          540             3,000         12,450         16,000

1996                 480          2,150           8,240          10,870            580          3,010         13,450         17,040
1997                 470          2,140           8,100          10,710            550          2,940         13,310         16,800
1998                 410          1,860           7,840          10,100            460          2,520         12,610         15,580
1999                 400          1,850           8,800          11,050            460          2,470         13,980         16,910
2000                 450          1,950           9,410          11,800            530          2,540         14,990         18,060

2001                 470          2,020          9,780           12,270            530          2,700         15,550         18,780
2002                 480          2,050          10,620           13,150            550          2,790         16,760         20,100
2003                 500          1,970          9,930           12,400            580          2,590         15,820         18,990
2004                 520          1,790          8,900           11,210            580          2,340         14,060         16,980
2005                 470          1,540          8,060           10,070            550          2,090         12,760         15,400

2006P                 480          1,480           7,430           9,390            540          1,960         11,880         14,380



P
Provisional data. The sample of fatality data from Coroners for 2005 has now been finalised but 2006 estimates are based on a reduced
sample of coroners' returns and may be biased. They remain provisional until more complete information for 2006 is available.




               Chart 3a: Killed and serious casualties resulting from accidents involving illegal
                            alcohol levels: GB 1979 – 2006


  12,000




  10,000




    8,000




    6,000




    4,000
                                                                                                        KSI


                                                                                              Serious
    2,000

                                                                                                          Killed

      0
                                                                                                               2006P
        1979

            1980

               1981

                   1982

                       1983

                          1984

                               1985

                                   1986

                                       1987

                                          1988

                                              1989

                                                 1990

                                                     1991

                                                         1992

                                                             1993

                                                                1994

                                                                    1995

                                                                        1996

                                                                            1997

                                                                               1998

                                                                                    1999

                                                                                       2000

                                                                                           2001

                                                                                               2002

                                                                                                   2003

                                                                                                       2004

                                                                                                           2005




  P
    Provisional data




                                                         29
1) Coroners’ data: Table 3b, based on coroners’ and procurators’ fiscal data, shows for all drivers and
riders the percentage killed who were over the legal blood alcohol limit, analysed by age group, for the
period 1991 to 2006. The proportion has fallen considerably since the early 1980s, when around a
third of drivers and riders killed were over the limit. It has since remained at about one in five (dipping
to one in six between 1997 and 1999).

Table 3b shows that provisional figures for 2006 indicate a fall in the percentage of car and other motor
vehicle driver fatalities who were over the limit for all age groups, except those over forty. Motorcycle
riders showed a little change in 16–29-year-olds, although the provisional figures are based upon a
very small sample size.


Table 3b: Drivers and riders killed: Percentage over the legal blood alcohol limit: GB 1991 - 2006



                   Motorcycle riders                 Cars and other motor vehicles      All


            Age      Age    Age    Age    All     Age    Age    Age   Age    All
Year         16-19    20-29    30-39    40+   Ages     16-19   20-29   30-39   40+   Ages


1991          13       16     25      12  17      11     29    24    13   20    19
1992          10       30     34      20  26      13     26    18    10   17    20
1993          16       16     17      10  15      20     28    26    10   20    19
1994          13       17     23      20  18      16     31    30    11   22    21
1995          11       18     12      13  15      18     28    26    13   21    19
1996          16       12     15      9   13      24     38    32     9   23    21
1997          10       14     16      7   13      25     23    26    12   19    17
1998          15       7     18      6   11      17     25    24     9   17    15
1999          23       8     12      2    9      22     31    31     7   20    17
2000          17       10     13      5   10      20     32    34    12   22    18
2001          11       14     12      1   10      18     35    25    14   22    18
2002          27       15     10      2   11      18     31    37    14   19    19
2003          10       20     12      8   13      18     33    28    12   19    19
2004          19       19     13      10  14      26     31    32    16   25    21
2005          26       11     13      11  13      25     33    33    13   24    20


2006P               1            2
               14            10       11      25     33    24    19   25    20

P
  Provisional data. The sample size for 2006 is not yet sufficient to give a full age breakdown.
1
  Age groups 16-29
2
  Age groups 30+




                                      30
2) STATS19 breath test data: Table 3c shows the number of motor vehicle drivers and riders involved
in injury accidents each year from 1997 to 2006, the number who were consequently required to take a
roadside breath test and the number who failed the test either by registering a positive reading or by
refusing to take the test. The proportion of drivers and riders failing breath tests fell between 1994 and
1999, reflecting the fact that the lower number of tests carried out in earlier years was obviously
targeted at those drivers believed to have been drinking. Subsequently, it rose again until 2003, since
when there has been a small drop. Testing rates had remained at about 50 per cent, rising slightly in
2006 to 54 per cent. The percentage of all drivers and riders involved in injury accidents who are
required to take a breath test and subsequently fail has remained at close to 2 per cent throughout the
past ten years.


Table 3c: Drivers and riders in injury road accidents: breath tests and failures: GB 1997 - 2006


                                                                      Number/Percentage


                  1997    1998    1999      2000      2001     2002      2003    2004     2005    2006



a. Total involved         413,197  413,172  406,401    408,231     399,883   390,273    374,098    362,303   348,798   331,155

b. Total Tests requested     188,986  209,723  214,750    212,700     201,722   196,232    187,276    183,972   183,219   179,270

c. Total Failed           7,960   7,514   7,523     7,967      8,096     8,104     8,150   7,427    7,115    6,594



b as % of a              46     51     53       52       50      50       50      51      53    54

c as % of b              4.2    3.6    3.5      3.7       4.0      4.1      4.4     4.0     3.9    3.7

c as % of a              1.9    1.8    1.9      2.0       2.0      2.1      2.2     2.0     2.0    2.0




3) Police-force screening breath test data: Table 3d shows the total number of drivers and riders
required to take a roadside screening breath test in England and Wales. The numbers of screening
breath tests carried out increased dramatically in the mid-1990s but have reduced again in recent
years. Failure rates remained fairly stable during the late 1990s, but the number of failures has risen
each year since 2000, despite a continuing decrease in the number of tests. The year 2004 showed an
increase in the number of tests, along with a decrease in failures. The number of convictions fell
between 1997 and 2001 but has risen again since then.


Table 3d: Roadside screening breath tests1: by outcome: England and Wales 1996 - 2004

                                                                          Thousands

                   1996    1997      1998     1999      2000       2001      2002     2003     2004



Number of Tests            781     800      816       765       715      624      570     534      578
Of which:
positive/refused2           101     103      102        94       95      100      104     106      103

Percentage               13     13       13       12       13      16       18      20      18

Convictions              96     100       93       89       86      85       90      94      96

1
  Source: Home Office
2
  Includes persons unable to provide a breath test specimen




                                     31
Characteristics of drink-drive accidents

Drinking and driving is a year-round problem, as shown by the figures in Chart 3b. Although the
pattern varies year on year, the first few months of the year generally have lower numbers of drink-
drive accidents and casualties than other months of the year. However, there seem to be peaks in
both the number of accidents and casualties in the months of May and October.

           Chart 3b: Estimated number of personal injury road accidents and casualties
         resulting where one or more driver or rider was over the legal alcohol limit by month:
                            GB: 2005

    1,500
                                                                       Casualties

    1,250



    1,000
                                                                       Accidents


     750



     500



     250



      0
          Jan    Feb     Mar    Apr      May     June    July   Aug    Sep     Oct    Nov     Dec
          800    750     770    800      930     790    850    820    860     930    900     850
  Accidents
          1,220    1,090  1,230    1,220   1,410    1,220     1,290   1,340   1,270    1,420   1,380    1,290
  Casualties



Table 3e, based on breath-test data, shows the percentage of car drivers involved in personal injury
accidents who failed a breath test in 2006, analysed by age and sex of driver. It shows that male
drivers under thirty had the highest incidence of failing a breath test after being involved in a personal
injury road accident. The failure rate for women was only about a third of that for male drivers, a
difference that cannot be accounted for by the slightly lower rates of testing for female drivers.

Table 3e: Car drivers in injury road accidents: breath tests and failures: GB 2006

                                                            Number/percentage
                      Men                               Women
         a: Involved               b as    c as      a: Involved               b as   c as
         in accident  b: Tested  c: Failed  % of a   % of a     in accident  b: Tested  c: Failed  % of a  % of a

                              47.8     10.0                        61.8   14.7
0 - 16         299     143      30                    34     21      5
                              70.2     4.2                        63.7    1.4
17 - 19       14,468    10,159      611                  6,763    4,306      93
                              65.8     5.5                        59.3    1.6
20 - 24       20,663    13,599     1,137                  12,199    7,230     196
                              64.2     4.6                        57.3    1.4
25 - 29       17,224    11,052      789                  10,799    6,189     155
                              60.9     3.5                        55.1    1.3
30 - 34       16,348    9,960      568                  10,000    5,512     127
                              62.1     3.0                        55.0    1.3
35 - 39       16,433    10,209      486                  11,019    6,065     144
                              62.2     2.3                        56.4    1.1
40 - 49       27,398    17,031      643                  17,500    9,864     186
                              63.5     1.7                        58.0    0.9
50 - 59       18,252    11,597      316                  10,119    5,865      88
                              62.8     1.0                        58.5    0.4
60 - 59       10,621    6,673      110                  4,729    2,767      19
                              62.5     0.4                        55.4    0.3
70 - 99        7,922    4,949      34                  3,061    1,697      10

All ages1                          59.6     3.0                        55.4    1.2
          161,902    96,434     4,799                  90,153   49,903    1,040
1
  Includes age not known




                                        32
Table 3f also shows that those aged under thirty have the most drink-drive accidents. However, the
table goes on to analyse the data using information on the number of full or provisional licence holders
and the annual average car mileage of these drivers. These data are taken from the National Travel
Survey (NTS) 2005.

Table 3f: Car drivers in road injury accidents: Accidents per license holder and per
mile driven: GB 2005

                                                                         Number
                    Car driver drink-          Drink-drive accidents per 100           Drink-drive accidents per
                    drive accidents               thousand licence holders          100 million miles driven


Under 17                       60                         ..                     ..
17 - 192                     1,080                         74                     25
20 - 24                      2,030                         71                     17
25 - 29                      1,410                         48                      7
30 - 34                      1,040                         29                      4
35 - 39                        980                        24                      3
40 - 49                      1,320                         18                      2
50 - 59                        620                        10                      1
60 or over                      330                         4                      1

All ages 1                    9,040                         25                      4


1
  Includes age not known.
2
  Figures based on a small NTS sample.




Characteristics of drink-drive casualties

Table 3e showed that women are much less likely to be involved in drink-drive accidents as drivers
than men. However, Table 3g shows that nearly a third of the total casualties in drink-drive accidents
were women. It is estimated that there were around 660 casualties in drink-drive accidents who were
pedestrians or cyclists.

Table 3g: Estimated number of casualties in road accidents where at least one of the drivers or riders
involved was over the legal limit: GB 2005

                                                                          Number
Killed or seriously injured casualties
                              Motor-      Car drivers           Car
                                                                           Total1
           Pedestrians     Cyclists     cyclists  over limit    under limit  passenger   Other  Male   Female


     0-15          20      10        10      0         0       60   0    60     40     100
    16-24           40       0       110     350         50       470   10   800     240    1,030
    25-59           70      20       200     550        170       270   50   1,060    280    1,340
     60+           20       0        0      30        20       40   0    70     40     120


   All ages2          170      30       320     930        240       870   70   2,020    620    2,640


Total Casualties


                              Motor-      Car drivers           Car
                                                                           Total1
           Pedestrians     Cyclists     cyclists  over limit    under limit  passenger   Other  Male   Female


     0-15          80      30        20      10         0       570   20   380     350     730
    16-24          150      20       390    2,120        530     2,430   100   4,090   1,670    5,760
    25-59          220      60       450    3,130       2,030     1,610   350   5,520   2,330    7,850
     60+           40      10        10     180        240       210   30   440     270     710
                 30       0        10      0         0       290   10   200     140     340
   All ages2          530      130       880    5,440       2,800     5,100   520  10,640   4,760   15,400


1
  Includes gender not recorded.
2
  Includes age not recorded.


                                           33
Table 3h is based on 2005 coroners’ and procurators’ fiscal data using a sample which accounts for
around 60 per cent of all road accident fatalities in that year. For these fatalities the table shows the
percentages exceeding varying levels of blood alcohol for different classes of road user and the
different proportions of fatalities exceeding 80 mg/100 ml by time of day. The pedestrian, passenger
and cyclist fatalities shown in the table were not necessarily involved in drink-drive accidents, as
defined earlier in this article, which involve a motor vehicle driver or rider who was over the limit.

Approximately one in four drivers killed, excluding motorcycles, were over the legal limit for driving a
motor vehicle, which is 80 mg/100 ml of blood alcohol. The rate for motorcycle riders killed was about
half of this. Around half of the drivers killed between 10 pm and 4 am were over the limit. Seventy-two
per cent of pedestrians killed between 10 pm and 4 am were over the legal limit. However, blood
alcohol levels were available for 77 per cent of motorcycle riders but for only 45 per cent of all
pedestrian fatalities. The figures may therefore overestimate the proportion of fatalities which are over
the legal limit.


Table 3h: Blood alcohol levels of fatalities aged 16 and over: GB: 2005

                                                         Percentage
                                             Percentage over 80mg/100ml time of
                Percentage over blood alcohol levels (mg/100ml)
                                                    accident
                                         Sample
             9  50   80   100   150     200      size   22:00-03:59     04:00-21:59

Motorcycle riders    21  15   13    12    7      5       425        60          8
Other vehicle drivers  35  27   24    22    16      9       861        53         15
Passengers        47  33   27    24    14      9       253        52         11
Pedestrians       49  41   38    36    32     27       302        72         23
Cyclists         17   8    6    6    6      3       63        25          5




                              34
4. Contributory factors to road accidents
David Robinson and Rashmeeta Singh, Transport Statistics: Road Safety, Department for
Transport


Summary

This article describes the scope and limitations of the information on contributory factors recently
added to the national road accident reporting system and presents results from the second year of
collection, including:

•  Failed to look properly was the most frequently reported contributory factor and was reported in
  35 per cent of all accidents. Four of the six most frequently reported contributory factors
  involved driver or rider error or reaction. For fatal accidents the most frequently reported
  contributory factor was loss of control, which was involved in 35 per cent of fatal accidents.

•  Pedal cyclists, followed by LGV drivers are the most likely to be in an accident in which they
  failed to look properly, (25 per cent and 23 per cent respectively). Motorcycles are most likely to
  be in an accident with another vehicle that failed to look properly. Drivers or riders between 40
  and 49 are the least likely to fail to look properly (17 per cent), but above this age the factor
  increases with driver/rider age.

•  In 16 per cent of accidents involving injured or killed pedestrians, the pedestrian casualty had
  Pedestrian masked when crossing as a contributory factor.

Introduction

In 2005 a new question on the factors which contributed to injury accidents was introduced to the
national road accident reporting system. The system has always contained a great deal of
information about the circumstances of the accident, the vehicles involved and their manoeuvres
and the consequent casualties. However, it primarily answers questions about the 'where', 'when'
and 'who' of an accident. The contributory factors system has been developed to provide some
insight into the 'why' and 'how' they occur. They are designed to give the key actions and failures
that led directly to the actual impact to aid investigation of how accidents might be prevented. The
contributory factors are largely subjective reflecting the opinion of the reporting police officer and
are not necessarily the result of extensive investigation. Some factors are less likely to be recorded
since evidence may not be available after the event. While this information will be valuable in
helping to identify ways of improving safety, care should be taken in its interpretation.

Part 1 of this article presents general analysis from accidents in 2006 and explains the scope of the
system, along with the limitations of its use. However, much of the value of this new data is in
assessing what happens in particular types of accident. Part 2 looks at the most commonly
reported contributory factor in both 2005 and 2006 – Driver/rider failed to look properly.




                         35
Part 1 – Contributory factor system and general analysis

Contributory factor data

The STATS19 national system of collection of information on road accidents involving human injury
gives considerable information about the circumstances of the accident including who the victims
are, what types of vehicle are involved and what they are doing at the time of the accident and the
general conditions at the time. However, until 2005 it did not routinely include information on the
main reasons why road accidents happen.

Between 1999 and 2004 data on contributory factors were collected on a trial basis by 15 police
forces. Some concerns were expressed about this trial system, for example some common types
of accidents were difficult to describe. As a result of the consultation for the 2002-03 Quality
Review of the Collection of Road Accident Statistics, a revised specification for the inclusion of
contributory factor data in STATS19 was introduced. From 20051 all police forces in Great Britain
began reporting contributory factors as an integral part of the STATS19 collection system.

It is important to note that whilst in some cases the contributory factor data collected since 2005 is
similar to that collected during the trial, it is not possible to undertake a direct comparison of the
results.

The contributory factors in a road accident are the key actions and failures that led directly to the
actual impact. They show why the accident occurred and give clues about how it may have been
prevented. The contributory factors are largely subjective and depend on the skill and experience
of the investigating officer to reconstruct the events which led directly to the accident. The
contributory factors reflect the reporting officer's opinion at the time of reporting and are not
necessarily the result of extensive investigation. Furthermore, it is recognised that subsequent
enquiries could lead to the reporting officer changing his opinion. The contributory factors are
therefore different in nature from the remainder of the STATS19 data which is based on the
reporting of factual information. This should be kept in mind when interpreting the data.

The contributory factor system allows the recording of up to six factors in those accidents reported
at scene by the police. Multiple factors may be recorded against an individual participant in the
accident (a driver/rider, a pedestrian casualty, a passenger casualty or an uninjured pedestrian), or
an individual vehicle (for vehicle defects). Where the road environment was a contributory factor to
the accident this can be recorded against any of the participants. Any given factor may be
assigned to a number of participants. Both accidents and vehicles can have more than one
contributory factor attributed to them, therefore percentages in this article will not necessarily add
up to 100. On average 2.4 contributory factors per accident are reported.

The form used by the police to report contributory factors can be found towards the rear of this
publication (see contents page). The form includes the full list of all 77 contributory factors used by
the police.

It is important to note that where some factors may have contributed to the cause of an accident it
may be difficult for a police officer attending the scene after the accident has occurred to identify
these factors. As a result some contributory factors may be less likely to be reported. For instance,
while factors such as emergency vehicle on a call or defective traffic signals may be more obvious
for a police officer attending the scene and so may be reported with some confidence, for other
factors, such as exceeding speed limit or driver nervous, uncertain or panicked, it may not always
be possible for the police officer to identify whether these factors took place and contributed to the
accident. In addition, contributory factors are disclosable in court and police officers would require
some supporting evidence before reporting certain factors.


1
The article based on the first year of contributory factor data can be found on the DfT website at the following web address -
http://www.dft.gov.uk/162259/162469/221412/221549/227755/contributoryfactorstoroadacc1802


                                  36
For each of the contributory factors given in an accident the police officer will indicate whether the
factor is ‘very likely’ or ‘possible’, although in this article no distinction is made between these two
categories.

A contributory factor example:

"A car driver is travelling at 40 miles per hour along a residential road with street lights late in the
evening whilst talking on a mobile phone. The driver hits a child playing in the road wearing dark
clothes".

Both participants in this accident had at least one contributory factor in this accident. The police
officer may have coded the accident up as follows:


Contributory factor                Which participant?    Confidence?

Driver using mobile phone             Driver          Possible
Exceeding speed limit               Driver          Possible
Dangerous action in carriageway          Casualty         Very likely
Pedestrian wearing dark clothing at night     Casualty         Very likely


Additionally both participants in this example could also have been attributed failed to look properly
(or in the case of the child pedestrian failed to look properly) as a factor. This is consistent with the
data in the tables below which show failed to look properly as the most frequently reported
contributory factor.

If the police officer had no evidence that the driver of the vehicle that hit the child was exceeding
the speed limit (skid marks for instance) he may only suspect that this was the case and so code
the factor only as ‘possible’. The police officer may also have to rely on information from one of the
participants to identify whether or not the driver was using a mobile phone.

As the data are still relatively new they may contain a some reporting errors. For instance, going
too fast for the conditions should always be attributed to the driver (even if they are also a
casualty). However in a small number of cases it has been attributed to a non driver casualty.
There are fewer of these errors in 2006 compared to 2005. For future years it may be possible to
introduce further validation checks to reduce these errors.

For accidents in which a police officer did not attend the scene it may not be possible for the
reporting officer to accurately report the correct contributory factors. As a result, the analysis
shown here only includes accidents in which a police officer attended the scene. In 2006, 81 per
cent of accidents met this condition.

From 1 January 2005 contributory factors should be reported for all accidents where a police
officer attended the scene. In the second year in which the new system was used there was an
increase in the proportion of these accidents that had contributory factors reported, from 92 per
cent in 2005 to 95 per cent in 2006. Accidents which were not reported at scene, or had no
contributory factors are excluded from this analysis.

Table 4a shows the proportion of accidents and vehicles that satisfied both of the above
conditions, shown for different accident severities, road types and vehicle types.

•  In 2006, 77 per cent of all accidents satisfied both conditions and these accidents are the basis
  for the analysis in this article, this compares to 74 per cent in 2005.

•  92 per cent of fatal accidents satisfied these conditions, compared with 75 per cent of slight
  accidents.

                          37
•  89 per cent of accidents occurring on motorways satisfied these conditions, compared with 79
  per cent and 78 per cent for A roads and B roads respectively.

•  Over 83 per cent of Heavy Goods Vehicles and motorcycles involved in accidents in 2006 are
  included in this analysis. This compares with less than 65 per cent of pedal cycles and buses
  or coaches.


Table 4a: Accidents and vehicles included in analysis1: GB 2006



                          Number included      Total number in  Per cent included
                            in analysis 1                 in analysis 1
Category                                         2006


Accidents

Accident severity
Fatal                             2,703           2,926         92
Serious                           22,111           24,946         89
Slight                           120,984          161,289         75

Road type

Motorw ays                          7,489           8,379         89
A roads                           66,371           84,050         79
B roads                           18,552           23,826         78
Other Roads 2                        53,386           72,906         73

                                                        77
Accidents included in analysis               145,798          189,161




                          Number included      Total number in  Per cent included
                            in analysis 1                 in analysis 1
Category                                         2006



Vehicles

Vehicle type

Pedal cycles                         10,749           16,611         65
Motorcycles                         20,249           24,323         83
Cars                            208,284          267,991         78
Buses or coaches                       5,698           9,133         62
Light goods vehicles                     12,296           15,593         79
Heavy goods vehicles                     9,720           11,336         86
Other vehicles                        2,316           3,072         75


Vehicles included in analysis 3                                        77
                              269,312          348,059



1 Includes accidents and vehicles involved in accidents w here a police officer
  attended the scene and in w hich a contributory factor w as reported.
2 Other roads includes C roads and unclassified roads.
3 Includes other vehicles types and cases w here the vehicle type w as not reported.




                                38
2006 results

Each of the 77 contributory factors fits into one of nine categories. Chart 4a shows the percentage
of accidents in each category.
•                              The contributory factor category driver/rider error or reaction was the most frequently reported
                              category, involved in 67 per cent of all accidents. It was also the most frequently reported type
                              for each severity of accident.
•                              Injudicious action (including going too fast for conditions, following too close and exceeding
                              speed limit) was the second most frequently reported category, involved in 27 per cent of all
                              accidents. However this increases to 34 per cent of fatal accidents.
•                              Special codes (including stolen vehicle, vehicle in course of crime and emergency vehicle on a
                              call) were reported for 5 per cent of all accidents.
•                              Pedestrian contributory factors, which are those where the factor has been attributed to an
                              injured or uninjured pedestrian involved in the accident, were reported in 13 per cent of all
                              accidents and 18 per cent of fatal accidents.

Chart 4a: Contributory Factor type: accidents by severity: GB 2006
                              100


                               90
  Percenatge of accidents with contributory factor type




                               80


                               70
                                                                          Fatal  Serious   Slight

                               60


                               50


                               40


                               30


                               20


                               10


                               0
                                   Road    Vehicle defects  Injudicious   Driver/rider  Impairment or  Behaviour or  Vision affected Pedestrian only Special codes
                                 environment             action   error or reaction  distraction  inexperience          (casualty or
                                  contributed                                                   uninjured)

Table 4b shows the percentage of accidents in which each contributory factor was reported,
including a breakdown into accident severity.

•                              Failed to look properly was the most frequently reported contributory factor and was involved in
                              35 per cent of all accidents. This was followed by failed to judge other person’s path/speed and
                              careless, reckless or in a hurry (both 18 per cent). Failed to look properly was the most
                              frequently reported contributory factor for slight and serious accidents (36 per cent and 28 per
                              cent).
•                              For fatal accidents the most frequently reported contributory factor was loss of control, which
                              was involved in 35 per cent of fatal accidents. Loss of control was also the second largest
                              contributory factor for serious accidents (20 per cent).

•                              Four of the six most frequently reported contributory factors were some kind of driver/rider error
                              or reaction, which includes failed to look properly and failed to judge other person’s path or
                              speed.

                                                                 39
Table 4b: Contributory factors: Accidents1 by severity: GB 2006

                             Fatal accidents   Serious accidents  Slight accidents  All accidents

                                    Per         Per        Per        Per
                                   cent2        cent2       cent2       cent2
Contributory factor reported in accident          Number        Number       Number      Number

                                     11         12         15
Road environm ent contributed                 291         2,731       17,945      20,967     14
Poor or defective road surface                 23     1     158   1     732    1    913     1
Deposit on road (eg. oil, mud, chippings)           23     1     371   2    1,826    2   2,220     2
Slippery road (due to w eather)                143     5    1,584   7   11,896   10  13,623     9
Inadequate or masked signs or road markings          13     0     77   0     593    0    683     0
Defective traffic signals                    3     0     28   0     228    0    259     0
Traffic calming (eg. speed cushions, road humps,
chicanes)                            3    0      37   0     170    0    210     0
Temporary road layout (eg. contraflow )             4    0      41   0     365    0    410     0
Road layout (eg. bend, hill, narrow carriagew ay)        91    3     583   3    3,017    2   3,691     3
Animal or object in carriagew ay                26    1     218   1    1,510    1   1,754     1

                                     3          2          2
Vehicle defects                         82          484       2,207       2,773     2
Tyres illegal, defective or under inflated           42    2     193   1     764    1    999     1
Defective lights or indicators                  7    0      45   0     203    0    255     0
Defective brakes                        18    1     142   1     767    1    927     1
Defective steering or suspension                 6    0      53   0     255    0    314     0
Defective or missing mirrors                   0    0      3   0     15    0    18     0
Overloaded or poorly loaded vehicle or trailer         15    1      68   0     292    0    375     0

                                     34         26         27
Injudicious action                      919         5,807       32,532      39,258     27
Disobeyed automatic traffic signal               32     1     348   2    2,303    2   2,683     2
Disobeyed 'Give Way' or 'Stop' sign or markings        50     2     657   3    4,791    4   5,498     4
Disobeyed double w hite lines                 28     1     105   0     200    0    333     0
Disobeyed pedestrian crossing facility             13     0     159   1     472    0    644     0
Illegal turn or direction of travel              17     1     187   1     889    1   1,093     1
Exceeding speed limit                     381     14    1,519   7    5,358    4   7,258     5
Travelling too fast for conditions              493     18    2,819   13   12,768   11  16,080     11
Follow ing too close                      43     2     636   3    9,345    8  10,024     7
Vehicle travelling along pavement               13     0     85   0     342    0    440     0
Cyclist entering road from pavement              15     1     222   1    1,031    1   1,268     1

                                     66         61         68
Driver/rider error or reaction                1,780        13,460       82,839      98,079     67
Junction overshoot                       44     2     415   2    2,804    2   3,263     2
Junction restart (moving off at junction)            28     1     237   1    2,236    2   2,501     2
Poor turn or manoeuvre                     352    13    3,120   14   17,138   14  20,610     14
Failed to signal or misleading signal              14     1     288   1    2,280    2   2,582     2
Failed to look properly                    517    19    6,282   28   43,555   36  50,354     35
Failed to judge other person’s path or speed          301    11    3,034   14   23,611   20  26,946     18
Passing too close to cyclist, horse rider or pedestrian     25     1     254   1    1,439    1   1,718     1
Sudden braking                         89     3    1,007   5    9,258    8  10,354     7
Sw erved                            166     6     855   4    4,481    4   5,502     4
Loss of control                        945    35    4,329   20   16,152   13  21,426     15

                                     18         14         11
Im pairm ent or distraction                  496         3,140       13,280      16,916     12
Impaired by alcohol                      259     10    1,716   8    5,722    5   7,697     5
Impaired by drugs (illicit or medicinal)            51     2     174   1     410    0    635     0
Fatigue                            69     3     385   2    1,511    1   1,965     1
Uncorrected, defective eyesight                 4     0     47   0     158    0    209     0
Illness or disability, mental or physical           75     3     393   2    1,379    1   1,847     1
Not displaying lights at night or in poor visibility      14     1     81   0     333    0    428     0
Cyclist w earing dark clothing at night            12     0     80   0     315    0    407     0
Driver using mobile phone                   28     1     57   0     260    0    345     0
Distraction in vehicle                     54     2     351   2    2,405    2   2,810     2
Distraction outside vehicle                  21     1     189   1    1,856    2   2,066     1




                                   40
Table 4b: Contributory factors: Accidents1 by severity: GB 2006 (Continued)

                            Fatal accidents   Serious accidents  Slight accidents   All accidents
                                   Per         Per        Per           Per
                                  cent2        cent2       cent2         cent2
Contributory factor reported in accident         Number        Number       Number       Number

Behaviour or inexperience                  754     28    6,110   28   31,296   26     38,160   26
Aggressive driving                     250     9    1,175   5    4,398    4     5,823    4
Careless, reckless or in a hurry              429     16    4,064   18   21,175   18     25,668   18
Nervous, uncertain or panic                 38     1     296   1    1,932    2     2,266    2
Driving too slow for conditions or slow vehicle (eg
tractor)                           4     0      18   0     113    0      135   0
Learner or inexperienced driver/rider            144     5    1,188   5    6,314    5     7,646   5
Inexperience of driving on the left             10     0     107   0     604    0      721   0
Unfamiliar w ith model of vehicle              38     1     231   1     957    1     1,226   1

Vision affected                       191     7    2,010   9   12,487   10     14,688   10
Stationary or parked vehicle(s)               29     1     623   3    3,703    3     4,355    3
Vegetation                          9     0      99   0     444    0      552    0
Road layout (eg. bend, w inding road, hill crest)      44     2     327   1    1,821    2     2,192    2
Buildings, road signs, street furniture            3     0      46   0     277    0      326    0
Dazzling headlights                     11     0      80   0     388    0      479    0
Dazzling sun                         36     1     380   2    2,692    2     3,108    2
Rain, sleet, snow , or fog                  41     2     349   2    2,331    2     2,721    2
Spray from other vehicles                   5     0      39   0     307    0      351    0
Visor or w indscreen dirty or scratched            3     0      28   0     136    0      167    0
Vehicle blind spot                      25     1     195   1    1,511    1     1,731    1

Pedestrian only (casualty or uninjured)           490     18    4,538   21   13,891   11     18,919   13
Pedestrian crossing road masked by stationary or
parked vehicle                        46     2     978   4    2,823    2     3,847    3
Pedestrian failed to look properly             294     11    3,324   15   10,261    8     13,879   10
Pedestrian failed to judge vehicle’s path or speed     124     5     986   4    2,838    2     3,948    3
Pedestrian w rong use of pedestrian crossing facility    27     1     320   1     795    1     1,142    1
Dangerous action in carriagew ay (eg. playing)        64     2     395   2    1,128    1     1,587    1
Pedestrian impaired by alcohol               121     4     795   4    1,832    2     2,748    2
Pedestrian impaired by drugs (illicit or medicinal)      9     0     69   0     158    0      236    0
Pedestrian careless, reckless or in a hurry         81     3    1,556   7    4,751    4     6,388    4
Pedestrian w earing dark clothing at night          89     3     286   1     588    0      963    1
Pedestrian disability or illness, mental or physical     52     2     169   1     399    0      620    0

Special codes                        172     6    1,223   6    5,733    5     7,128   5
Stolen vehicle                        40     1     224   1     919    1     1,183   1
Vehicle in course of crime                  13     0      94   0     521    0      628   0
Emergency vehicle on a call                  5     0      98   0     745    1      848   1
Vehicle door opened or closed negligently           3     0      92   0     476    0      571   0
Other                            118     4     773   3    3,389    3     4,280   3

Total num ber of accidents                 2,703   100    22,111  100   120,984  100   145,798    100


1 Includes only accidents w here a police officer attended the scene and in w hich a contributory factor w as reported.
2 Columns may not add up to 100 per cent as accidents can have more than 1 contributory factor. 0 indicates zero or
negligible values


Table 4c compares the 10 most frequently reported contributory factors in 2005 and 2006. The ten
factors remained the same in both years; however there were some small changes in the order
and frequency of the factors. The largest change was an increase in the most frequently reported
factor, failed to look properly, which was reported in 32 per cent of accidents in 2005 and 35 per
cent in 2006. At this stage it is not possible to tell whether this change is the result of the reporting
police officers developing their understanding of the new system or a genuine change in the kinds
of factors that contribute to accidents.




                                  41
Table 4c: Contributory factors: GB 2005/2006 comparison

                                   2005               2006
Contributory factor reported in accident            Number    Percentage     Number    Percentage


Failed to look properly                    46,516        32      50,354         35
Failed to judge other person's path or speed          26,245        18      26,946         18
Careless, reckless or in a hurry                23,744        16      25,668         18
Poor turn or manoeuvre                     22,052        15      20,610         14
Loss of control                        21,204        14      21,426         15
Travelling too fast for conditions               17,107        12      16,080         11
Slippery road (due to w eather)                14,268        10      13,623         9
Pedestrian failed to look properly               13,690        9      13,879         10
Follow ing too close                      10,847        7      10,024         7
Sudden braking                         10,273        7      10,354         7


Total number of accidents                   147,509       100      145,798       100



1 Includes only accidents w here a police officer attended the scene and in w hich a contributory factor w as reported
2 Includes only the ten most frequently reported contributory factors



Table 4d shows, for each vehicle type, the percentage of vehicles which had each contributory
factor. The table shows the ten most frequently reported contributory factors for each vehicle type.

The percentages in this table are different from those in Table 4b which gives the percentage of
accidents with each contributory factor. For example when looking at Failed to look properly –
52,378 vehicles had this contributory factor out of a total of 269,312 vehicles (19 per cent of
vehicles). The vehicles which had this contributory factor were in 50,354 accidents out of a total of
145,798 accidents (35 per cent of accidents). Part of the reason for the lower number when looking
at the percentage of vehicles is that 116,133 vehicles (43 per cent) involved in accidents had no
contributory factor reported.

•  Failed to look properly was the most frequently reported contributory factor for every vehicle
  type. More information on this factor can be found in the second part of this article.

•  Motorcycles had a notably higher percentage of the contributory factors learner/inexperienced
  driver (9 per cent) and loss of control (14 per cent) when compared to other vehicle types.

•  Sudden braking was the second most frequently reported contributory factor for buses or
  coaches (13 per cent). 3 per cent of buses or coaches had passing too close to cyclist as a
  contributory factor. This was higher than any other vehicle type.

•  Cyclist entering road from pavement was attributed to 11 per cent of pedal cycles in accidents
  and cyclist wearing dark clothes at night was attributed to 3 per cent.

•  6 per cent of Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGVs) involved in accidents had vehicle blind spot as a
  contributory factor.

•  Exceeding speed limit was attributed to 3 per cent of cars involved in accidents, while travelling
  too fast for conditions was attributed to 6 per cent. For fatal accidents these figures are 10 per
  cent and 13 per cent respectively.




                                 42
Table 4d: Contributory factors: vehicles1 by vehicle type: GB 2006

                                     Pedal cycles       Motorcycles          Cars         Bus or Coach
                                            Per           Per             Per          Per
Contributory factor attributed to vehicle4                      cent3          cent3            cent3         cent3
                                     Number          Number           Number          Number


Failed to look properly                          2,697     25     2,961    15      40,482      19     865    15
Failed to judge other person’s path or speed                 840     8     2,221    11      22,027      11     447    8
Careless, reckless, in a hurry                        963     9     2,185    11      20,251      10     410    7
Loss of control                               460     4     2,930    14      16,703      8     74    1
Poor turn or manoeuvre                            642     6     1,972    10      16,213      8     283    5
Travelling too fast for conditions                      238     2     1,673     8      13,072      6     173    3
Slippery road (due to w eather)                       126     1     1,188     6      11,860      6     96    2
Sudden braking                                113     1     1,096     5      8,092      4     740    13
Follow ing too close                             92     1      779     4      8,275      4     206    4
Learner or inexperienced driver/rider                    166     2     1,787     9      5,594      3     15    0
Impaired by alcohol                             202     2      454     2      6,450      3      3    0
Exceeding speed limit                             9     0      907     4      6,129      3     13    0
Junction restart (moving off at junction)                   22     0       62     0      2,200      1     51    1
Passing too close to cyclist, horse rider, pedestrian             28     0       68     0      1,168      1     166    3
Cyclist entering road from pavement                    1,137     11       10     0        55      0      0    0
Vehicle blind spot                              10     0       24     0       899      0     39    1
Cyclist w earing dark clothing at night                   327     3       29     0        23      0      0    0
No lights at night                              215     2       61     0       123      0      1    0

Vehicles w ith no contributory factor                   4,998     46     7,500    37      90,567      43    3,058    54

Number of vehicles                            10,749    100     20,249   100      208,284     100    5,698   100


                                                                            All vehicles 2
                                                Light goods vehicle   Heavy goods vehicle
                                                         Per              Per        Per
Contributory factor attributed to vehicle4                                   cent3             cent3        cent3
                                                  Number           Number          Number

Failed to look properly                                       2,858     23       2,155     22   52,378    19
Failed to judge other person’s path or speed                             1,573     13       1,199     12   28,494    11
Careless, reckless, in a hurry                                    1,383     11        726      7   26,086    10
Loss of control                                            670     5        394      4   21,389    8
Poor turn or manoeuvre                                        1,073     9        936     10   21,286    8
Travelling too fast for conditions                                   755     6        416      4   16,409    6
Slippery road (due to w eather)                                    608     5        333      3   14,283    5
Sudden braking                                             549     4        359      4   11,003    4
Follow ing too close                                          788     6        617      6   10,815    4
Learner or inexperienced driver/rider                                  64     1        25      0   7,687    3
Impaired by alcohol                                          289     2        34      0   7,472    3
Exceeding speed limit                                         180     1        81      1   7,348    3
Junction restart (moving off at junction)                               116     1        69      1   2,534    1
Passing too close to cyclist, horse rider or pedestrian                        157     1        112      1   1,723    1
Cyclist entering road from pavement                                   4     0         0      0   1,208    0
Vehicle blind spot                                           121     1        625      6   1,748    1
Cyclist w earing dark clothing at night                                 1     0         0      0    380    0
No lights at night                                            7     0         9      0    419    0

Vehicles w ith no contributory factor                                4,930     40       4,047     42  116,133    43

Number of vehicles                                         12,296    100       9,720    100   269,312   100

1Includes o nly vehicles in ro ad accidents where a po lice o fficer attended the scene and in which a co ntributo ry facto r was repo rted.
Co lumns may no t add up to 1 per cent as accidents can have mo re than o ne co ntributo ry facto r.
                00
2 Includes o ther vehicles types and cases where the vehicle type was no t repo rted.
3 0 indicates zero o r negligible values – mo st are between 0.1%-0.5%
4 Includes o nly the ten mo st frequently repo rted co ntributo ry facto rs fo r each vehicle




                                           43
Table 4e shows contributory factors allocated to pedestrians. The table shows the ten most
frequently reported contributory factors for both the percentage of accidents involving pedestrian
casualties and the percentage of accidents involving uninjured pedestrians.

•  Pedestrian failed to look properly was the most frequently reported contributory factor in both
  accidents involving injured or killed pedestrians and accidents involving uninjured pedestrians.

•  In 16 per cent of accidents involving injured or killed pedestrians, the pedestrian casualty had
  Pedestrian masked when crossing as a contributory factor. The equivalent figure for uninjured
  pedestrians is 6 per cent.


Table 4e: Contributory factors: Pedestrians1: GB 2006

                                       Accidents involving injured or  Accidents involving uninjured
                                         killed pedestrian4         pedestrian4
Contributory factor attributed to pedestrian3                          Per cent2            Per cent2
                                         Number             Number

                                                    57               31
Pedestrian failed to look properly                        12,711                85
                                                    26               26
Pedestrian careless, reckless or in a hurry                    5,878                72
                                                    16                6
Pedestrian crossing road masked by stationary or parked vehicle          3,644                16
                                                    15                5
Pedestrian failed to judge vehicle’s path or speed                 3,407                13
                                                    11                3
Pedestrian impaired by alcohol                           2,488                8
                                                     6                8
Dangerous action in carriageway (eg. playing)                   1,443                21
                                                     5                4
Wrong use of pedestrian crossing facility                     1,091                10
                                                     4                2
Pedestrian wearing dark clothing at night                      900                5
                                                     2                1
Pedestrian disability or illness, mental or physical                 551                2
                                                     1                0
Pedestrian impaired by drugs (illicit or medicinal)                 207                1
                                                     0                3
Road layout (eg. bend, hill, narrow carriageway)                   22                8
                                                     0               11
Slippery road (due to weather)                            16                30
                                                     0                8
Animal or object in carriageway                            5                22
                                                     0                3
Deposit on road (eg. oil, mud, chippings)                       2                8

                                                    100              100
Number of accidents                                22,353                273



1 Includes only pedestrians in road accidents where a police officer attended the scene and in which a contributory
factor was reported. Columns may not add up to 100 per cent as accidents can have more than one contributory factor
2 0 indicates Zero or negligible value - most are between 0.1% and 0.5%
3 Includes only the ten most frequently reported contributory factors for both accidents involving injured or killed
pedestrians and accidents involving uninjured pedestrians
4 Accidents can involve both pedestrian casualties and uninjured pedestrians




                                  44
Table 4f shows contributory factors by road class. The table shows the ten most frequently
reported contributory factors for each road type.

•    Failed to look properly was the most frequently reported contributory factor for every road
    class. 37 per cent of accidents on A roads had this factor compared with 26 per cent on
    motorways.

•    Following too close was a contributory factor in 16 per cent of accidents on motorways
    compared with 9 per cent for A roads and 5 per cent for B roads. Similarly, motorways also had
    the highest percentage of accidents which involved either sudden braking or swerved as
    contributory factors when compared to other road types.

•    B roads had slippery road as a contributory factor in 12 per cent of accidents compared with 8
    per cent for motorways and 9 per cent for A roads.

Table 4f: Contributory factors: Accidents1 by road type: GB 2006

                                                             Other roads 2
                          Motorw ays         A roads        B roads                     All roads

Contributory factor reported in                 Per          Per          Per            Per          Per
                         Number          Number         Number        Number          Number
accident4                           cent3          cent3        cent3           cent3         cent3

Failed to look properly               1,912     26    24,572    37    6,042   33     17,828     33    50,354    35
Failed to judge other persons            1,859     25    14,056    21    3,244   17     7,787     15    26,946    18
 path/speed
Careless, reckless or in a hurry           722     10    12,582    19    3,199   17     9,165     17    25,668    18
Loss of control                   1,619     22     9,228    14    3,312   18     7,267     14    21,426    15
Poor turn or manoeuvre                841     11    10,382    16    2,613   14     6,774     13    20,610    14
Travelling too fast for conditions          854     11     7,450    11    2,274   12     5,502     10    16,080    11
Pedestrian failed to look properly           30     0     5,370     8    1,516    8     6,963     13    13,879    10
Slippery road (due to w eather)            590     8     5,853     9    2,306   12     4,874     9    13,623     9
Sudden braking                    893     12     5,486     8    1,256    7     2,719     5    10,354     7
                                                                                 7
Follow ing too close                1,227     16     6,000     9     948    5     1,849     3    10,024
Impaired by alcohol                  279     4     2,975     4    1,115    6     3,328     6     7,697     5
Learner or inexperienced               211     3     2,964     4    1,149    6     3,322     6     7,646     5
driver/rider
Sw erved                       609     8     2,537     4     753    4     1,603     3     5,502    4

                                100           100          100           100            100
Total num ber of accidents             7,489          66,371         18,552         53,386         145,798


1Includes o nly accidents where a po lice o fficer attended the scene and in which a co ntributo ry facto r was repo rted. Co lumns may no t add up to
  1 per cent as accidents can have mo re than 1co ntributo ry facto r.
   00
2 Other ro ads includes C ro ads and unclassified ro ads.
3 0 indicates zero o r negligible values – mo st are between 0.1 - 0.5%
                                %
4 Includes o nly the ten mo st frequently repo rted co ntributo ry facto rs fo r each ro ad type


The tables above give an overview of the contributory factors involved in all accidents. However,
contributory factors can be most useful when looking at a particular subsection of accidents, for
example, accidents involving young drivers or child pedestrians. In these more specific
circumstances the use of contributory factors can be an important analysis tool to give insight into
the possible causes of different types of accidents, and may help to develop policies to reduce
road casualties.

Part 2 of this article gives an example of the more detailed analysis using contributory factor data.




                                          45
Part 2 – Accidents involving failed to look properly as a contributory
factor
The first two years of contributory factor data has shown that failed to look properly is the most
commonly reported contributory factor to road accidents. In 2006 it was allocated to 19 per cent of
all vehicles in accidents and these accidents accounted for 35 per cent of all accidents.

The definition of failed to look properly is:

“A driver/rider either failed to look where they were going or they looked, but misinterpreted what
they saw (looked but did not see). May be used where driver/rider was not paying attention to the
road ahead.”

It is clear that this definition is quite broad and may encompass a large range of accident
circumstances. The purpose of this part of the article is to investigate the kinds of accidents and
drivers/riders which have failed to look properly as a contributory factor (also referred to as “the
factor”). It is possible failed to look properly may sometimes be used as an excuse for their
behaviour by drivers at fault, or as a default option by police officers in the absence of alternative
evidence. There was a similar issue with the contributory factor looked but failed to see from the
pilot contributory factor system. A review of this factor was published in 20052.

Theoretically the factor should only be allocated to drivers or riders. However there are a small
number of accidents in which the factor was attributed to participants who were not reported as
drivers/riders. These accidents account for less than one per cent of all accidents involving failed to
look properly and are included in the following analysis. There is a separate failed to look properly
factor specifically allocated to pedestrians which is not included in the following analysis.

Table 4b in the first part of the article shows the factor is much more prevalent in accidents with a
lower severity. It was reported in 19 per cent of fatal accidents, 28 per cent of serious accidents
and 36 per cent of slight accidents. Therefore, slight accidents are almost twice as likely to involve
the factor as fatal accidents.

Table 4g: Accidents with "failed to look properly" as a contributory factor, by road type: GB 2006
                                                 Percentage of accidents w ith factor

Road type                            Fatal      Serious        Slight      All accidents


Motorw ays                             9         21          26           26

Urban A roads                           20         36          45           43
           1
Urban other roads                         24         31          40           38
All urban roads 1,2                        22         33          42           41

Rural A roads                           20         26          30           29
Rural other roads 1                        15         20          24           23
All rural roads 1,2                        18         23          28           27



All roads 2                            19         28          36           35



1 Excludes motorw ays
2 Includes cases w here road class w as not reported




2
  Review of the ‘Looked but Failed to See’ Accident Causation Factor – Road Safety Research Report No. 60


                                 46
Table 4g shows that failed to look properly occurs more in urban accidents than rural accidents.
This may be because there is more going on in urban environments for the driver to fail to see or to
be distracted by. Drivers also fail to look properly more on A roads than motorways or more minor
roads.

Table 4h: Accidents with "failed to look properly" as a contributory factor,
     by junction location: GB 2006


                     Number of accidents at  Number of accidents  Percentage of accidents w ith
Junction type                   junction type      w ith factor             factor


Private drive/entrance                   5,228         2,835               54
Mini-roundabout                      1,162          570               49
Crossroads                        13,947         6,787               49
T or staggered junction                 43,355         19,433               45
Roundabout                        10,606         4,554               43
Multiple junction                     2,061          835               41
Other junction                       4,850         1,742               36
Slip road                         2,489          820               33
All junctions                      83,698         37,576               45


Not at w ithin 20 m etres of a junction         62,100         12,778               21



All accidents                      145,798         50,354               35




Three-quarters of failed to look properly accidents happen at or near a junction; accidents
occurring at T or staggered junctions have the most failed to look properly accidents, 19,433
accidents in 2006 (table 4h). However, accidents occurring at private drives or entrances were the
most likely to involve a participant failing to look properly as over half of all these accidents
involved the factor. There is little difference between crossroads and mini-roundabouts in the
proportion of accidents that involved the factor

Almost 60 per cent of drivers that were performing U turns at the time of the accident failed to look
properly (table 4i). This was followed by over 50 per cent of the 26,400 drivers who were turning
right. Although the proportion of vehicles going ahead that failed to look properly was relatively low
(15 per cent), going ahead was the most common manoeuvre of vehicles that failed to look
properly (38 per cent of these vehicles). This is because of the very large proportion of vehicles in
accidents were going ahead at the time of the accident. Overall drivers or riders were more likely to
fail to look properly if they were either turning or changing lane to the right compared to turning or
changing lane to the left. This is especially true for car drivers and motorcycle riders..




                           47
Table 4i: Vehicles with "failed to look properly" as a contributory factor,
     by vehicle manoeuvre: GB 2006

                         Number of vehicles in   Number of vehicles    Percentage of vehicles
Manoeuvre                          accidents       w ith factor         w ith factor


U turn                              2,126           1,251              59
Turning right                          26,399          13,795              52
Reversing                            2,649           1,369              52
Changing lane to right                      3,085           1,560              51
Changing lane to left                      2,293           1,036              45
Moving off                            8,191           3,658              45
Turning left                           7,261           2,730              38
Overtaking-nearside                       1,547           363              23
Overtaking moving vehicle-offside                5,938           1,363              23
Overtaking static vehicle-offside                3,234           680              21
Going ahead other                       128,758          19,793              15
Waiting to turn left                       1,131           150              13
Waiting to turn right                      4,807           512              11
Slow ing or stopping                      19,218           1,985              10
Going ahead left-hand bend                   12,425           647               5
Going ahead right-hand bend                   13,683           559               4
Waiting to go-held up                      16,023           594               4
Parked                             10,469           319               3



All vehicles 1                         269,312          52,378              19



1 Includes unknown vehicle manoeuvres



Table 4j: Vehicles with "failed to look properly" as a contributory factor,
by vehicle and accident type: GB 2006

                            Percentage of vehicle type w ith failed to look as a contributory factor

                  Single Vehicle Accidents
                 No pedestrian  With pedestrian     Tw o vehicle    Three or more        All
Vehicle type            casualties     casualties      accidents   vehicle accidents    accidents

Pedal cycle                 8         35         26           16         25
Motorcycle                  5         21         16           14         15
Car                     4         18         25           11         19
Bus or Coach                13         11         18           13         15
LGV                     4         24         29           14         23
HGV                     4         20         27           15         22

All vehicles 1                5         18         25           11         19


Includes only vehicles in road accidents w here a police officer attended the scene and
in w hich a contributory factor w as reported.
1 Includes other vehicle types




                                  48
Overall pedal cyclists are the most likely road user group to fail to look properly. However
this is largely due to child (aged under 16) pedal cyclists. 46 per cent of child pedal cyclists
failed to look properly compared to 19 per cent of adult pedal cyclists. LGV drivers are the
most likely to fail to look properly in two vehicle accidents and bus or coach drivers are the
most likely to fail to look properly in single vehicle accidents with no pedestrians. Over half
of these buses/coaches also had sudden braking as a contributory factor. Motorcyclists
were the least likely to fail to look properly followed closely by buses or coaches. In
general drivers in two vehicle accidents are the most likely to fail to look properly. The
following table concentrates on these kinds of accidents.

Table 4k: Two vehicle accidents in which a driver or rider had "failed to look
properly" as a contributory factor: GB 2006

                                Percentage of drivers w ho "failed to look properly"

      Vehicle 2
                 HGV        LGV Bus or Coach        Car   Motorcycle   Pedal cycle
Vehicle 1
                 41        48       27       38        22
                                                       22
  Pedal cycle     16        24       29       26        38
                 34        50       27       47
                                                18
  Motorcycle      18        16       20       16
                 28        26       17
                                       22
    Car       15        17       30
                 29        34
                                19
 Bus or Coach     13        14
                 14
                        16
   LGV        16                                       Vehicle 2 type
                                                         Y
               15
   HGV                                        Vehicle 1 type X


                    X is the percentage of vehicle 1 type that had failed to look properly as a
          contributory factor in tw o vehicle accidents betw een vehicle type 1 and vehicle type 2.
                    Y is the percentage of vehicle 2 type that had failed to look properly as a
          contributory factor in tw o vehicle accidents betw een vehicle type 1 and vehicle type 2.




Table 4k shows, for two vehicle accidents, the percentage of each vehicle type that failed to look
properly when in an accident with another vehicle type. Motorcycles are most likely to be in an
accident with another vehicle that failed to look properly, particularly LGV drivers (50 per cent) and
car drivers (47 per cent). By comparison motorcycle riders failed to look properly in only 16 per
cent of accidents with LGVs.

LGV drivers are the most likely to fail to look properly in two vehicle accidents, not only in accidents
with motorcycles but also in accidents with pedal cycles (48 per cent) and buses or coaches (34
per cent).

In accidents between vehicles types of different sizes, the driver of the larger vehicle is twice as
likely to fail to look properly as the driver of the smaller vehicle. This is probably because smaller
vehicles are more difficult to see.

Chart 4b shows that drivers or riders under 16 are the most likely to fail to look properly (43 per
cent). However, almost all of these under 16s are pedal cyclists. In 2006 those between 40 and 49
were the least likely to fail to look properly (17 per cent), but above this age the factor increases
with driver/rider age. There is little difference between the percentage of male drivers (20 per cent)
and female drivers (19 per cent) who failed to look properly.




                                     49
                     Chart 4b: Percentage of driver/riders with failed to look properly as a contributory
                                factor, by driver/rider age: GB 2006

                  50

                  45

                  40
  Percentage of drivers/riders




                  35

                  30

                  25

                  20

                  15

                  10

                  5

                  0
                    0-15   16-19   20-29    30-39     40-49    50-59    60-69  70-79  80 +
                                         Driver/rider age




Table 4l: Other contributory factors allocated to vehicles that had
failed to look properly as a contributory factor: GB 2006

Contributory Factors 1                               Percentage of vehicles

Failed to judge other person's path or speed                              25
Careless, reckless or in a hurry                                    22
Poor turn or manoeuvre                                         21
Disobeyed 'Give Way' or 'Stop' sign or markings                               7
Travelling too fast for conditions                                     6
Follow ing too close                                            6


Total num ber of vehicles w ith failed to look
properly as a contributory factor                                  52,378


1 Includes only contributory factors attributed to over 5 per cent of
vehicles w hich failed to look properly.


Over half of all drivers who had failed to look properly as a contributory factor also had one of three
other factors – failed to judge other person’s path or speed (25 per cent), careless, reckless or in a
hurry (22 per cent) and poor turn or manoeuvre (21 per cent). All other individual factors were
reported against less than 5 per cent of drivers who failed to look properly.

In 36 per cent of accidents with a bus or coach in which a car driver failed to look properly the car
driver also had poor turn or manoeuvre as a contributory factor. The figure is similar for cars in
accidents with motorbikes. Around a third of cars drivers who failed to look properly in accidents
with HGVs also failed to judge the HGV’s path or speed.




                                         50
5. Hit and run accidents

Penny Allen, Transport Statistics: Road Safety, Department for Transport


The national accident statistics report form (previously known as STATS19) has recorded ‘Hit and
Run’ vehicles for many years. However, these data have not been published in regular tables or
articles in Road Casualties Great Britain since 1994. A one-off research report was published on
hit and run accidents 1990–2002 in 2004.

A ‘hit and run’ injury accident (H&R) is one in which one or more of the driver’s or rider’s vehicles
involved left the scene of an accident prematurely.1 It is acknowledged that, where ‘hit and run’ is
used on the form, it is likely that most information about the vehicle and its driver will be unknown.
However, where this information becomes available later, for example where a ‘hit and run driver’
is pursued and caught, it should be entered in on the form.2

The public are understandably concerned about the risk of being involved in a hit and run
accident. This is not simply because they expect a driver involved in an accident to stop, especially
if there may be a casualty. It is also because people associate hit and run drivers with a wide range
of motoring offences and therefore consider them to be a particular risk to other drivers. Only a
small proportion of casualty accidents fall into this category, but it is important to monitor their
frequency as an indicator of bad driving.


Summary

This article examines trends in ‘hit and run’ accidents between 1997 and 2006, where these
accidents occur, who is injured and which types of vehicles are involved. Key statistics include

•   Eleven per cent of all reported personal injury road accidents involve at least one hit and run
    driver/rider. This accounts for 6 per cent of all vehicles and 10 per cent of all casualties. These
    proportions have remained relatively consistent over the past three years.
•   The majority of H&R injury accidents and casualties are of slight severity (approximately 90 per
    cent).
•   Over a fifth of fatal H&R injury accidents occurred between midnight and 4 am, whilst half of all
    H&R accidents happened between 9 am and 6 pm.
•   Over 85 per cent of H&R injury accidents were on built-up roads, with over a third of all H&R
    accidents occurring on A roads.
•   Fifty-six per cent of casualties in H&R injury accidents were car occupants, with a quarter of
    these being 20–29 years old.




1
  Broughton, J (2004) Hit and Run accidents, 1990-2002, TRL Report TRL6512
2
  Department for Transport (2004) STATS20, Instructions for the completion of road accident reports




                                  51
Accident, vehicle and casualty trends

Table 5a shows the annual numbers and percentages of H&R injury accidents by severity between
1997 and 2006. The total number of H&R injury accidents peaked in 2002, at 26,225 accidents.
This has slowly declined to 21,006 in 2006, a 6 per cent reduction on the previous year. The
number of fatal accidents however are at a similar level as in 2002, having dipped slightly in
between.

The percentage of H&R injury accidents as a proportion of all road accidents has remained
consistent over the past three years at 11 per cent. However, the number of H&R accidents has
increased by 14 per cent since 1997, despite the number of all road accidents decreasing by 21
per cent over the same period.

Table 5a: Reported personal injury road accidents involving at least one hit and run driver/rider:
GB 1997 - 2006

                             Number of H&R accidents / Percentage of all accidents in category

Year          Fatal         Serious            Slight             Total


                3%            6%              8%               8%
1997          113          2,035            16,209             18,357
                4%            6%              8%               8%
1998          113          1,933            16,458             18,504
                4%            6%              9%               8%
1999          132          2,055            17,788             19,975
                3%            7%              10%              10%
2000          105          2,276            20,192             22,573
                4%            7%              11%              11%
2001          129          2,352            22,300             24,781
                5%            9%              12%              12%
2002          151          2,673            23,401             26,225
                5%            9%              13%              12%
2003          147          2,584            23,490             26,221
                5%            8%              12%              11%
2004          135          2,182            21,397             23,714
                5%            8%              12%              11%
2005          146          2,037            20,084             22,267
                5%            8%              12%              11%
2006          152          1,917            18,937             21,006




The majority (approximately 90 per cent) of all H&R injury accidents are of slight severity. One
reason for expecting a H&R accident to be less severe is that at least one of the vehicles involved
is relatively undamaged and can be driven away immediately afterwards. The slight accidents
therefore dictate the trend of H&R accidents. Fatal accidents have represented less than 1 per cent
of all H&R injury accidents in the past ten years; whilst serious accidents have represented
approximately 10 per cent.




                            52
Chart 5a shows that serious and slight H&R accidents have shown a fall in the relative proportion
since 2005, whilst fatal accidents have increased slightly.


      Chart 5a: Relative proportion of hit and run accidents to all reported personal injury
                 road accidents, by severity : GB 1997- 2006

14%



12%
                                                       Slight


10%



 8%
                                                       Serious


 6%


                                                       Fatal
 4%



 2%



 0%
  1997    1998    1999      2000  2001      2002      2003   2004     2005       2006


Table 5b shows the number and percentage of vehicles reported to be involved in personal injury
road accidents who left the scene, over the past ten years. There has been a 21 per cent decrease
in the number of vehicles involved in road accidents in the past ten years. In this period, there has
been a slight rise in the proportion of vehicles involved in H&R injury accidents, rising from 4 per
cent in 1997 to 7 per cent in 2003 and currently at 6 per cent in 2006.

The police officer at the scene of the accident may also code the hit and run question as ‘non-stop
vehicle, not hit’. This includes cases where a vehicle was involved in an accident but did not or was
not hit, and therefore left the scene of an accident. The driver’s actions cannot be described as ‘hit
and run’ because they may not have been aware of the accident. Information about the driver and
vehicle is not known, and is therefore not included in our hit and run statistics.

Table 5b: Vehicles involved in reported personal injury road accidents, by hit and run status:
GB 1997-2006

                                           Number/Percentage of vehicles
Year            Hit And Run         Non/stop Vehicle not hit        All accidents

                      4%                 1%                100%
1997             18,872                3,571            438,877
                      4%                 1%                100%
1998             19,159                3,856            437,105
1999             20,789     5%           4,061    1%        430,492     100%
                      5%                 1%                100%
2000             23,447                4,526            429,943
                      6%                 1%                100%
2001             25,905                4,369            420,073
2002             27,543     7%           4,319    1%        408,325     100%
                      7%                 1%                100%
2003             27,161                4,097            392,022
                      6%                 1%                100%
2004             24,313                4,156            379,845
                      6%                 1%                100%
2005             22,918                5,265            366,236
                      6%                 1%                100%
2006             21,562                4,761            348,059




                            53
Casualties resulting from H&R injury accidents over the same period have shown a similar trend to
H&R accidents, as shown in Table 5c. In 2006, slight casualties represented over 90 per cent of all
H&R casualties, whilst fatalities and serious casualties represented less than 1 per cent and 8 per
cent respectively. In 2006, there had been a 6 per cent decrease in the number of casualties
resulting from H&R accidents since 2005.

The percentage of H&R casualties as a proportion of all road accident casualties has remained at
10 per cent over the past three years. However, the number of H&R casualties has increased by
16 per cent over the last ten years, despite there being a 21 per cent decrease in all casualties
resulting from road accidents over the same time period.

Table 5c: Casualties resulting from reported personal injury road accidents involving at least
one hit and run driver/rider: GB 1997 - 2006

                             Number of H&R casualties / Percentage of all casualties in category
Year          Fatal         Serious             Slight              Total

1997          119    3%      2,213    5%        19,361    7%        21,693     7%
                 3%            5%               7%               7%
1998          118          2,131            19,613             21,862
                 4%            6%               8%               7%
1999          134          2,239            21,469             23,842
                 3%            7%               9%               9%
2000          111          2,495            24,656             27,262
                 4%            7%              10%               10%
2001          132          2,553            27,158             29,843
                 4%            8%              11%               10%
2002          154          2,924            28,649             31,727
                 4%            8%              11%               11%
2003          154          2,840            28,862             31,856
                 5%            8%              11%               10%
2004          145          2,364            26,033             28,542
                 5%            8%              10%               10%
2005          150          2,187            24,345             26,682
                 5%            7%              10%               10%
2006          153          2,055            22,885             25,093



Chart 5b shows the increase in the percentage of H&R injury accidents and casualties as a
proportion of all personal injury road accidents and casualties since 1997, where H&R accidents
represented 8 per cent and casualties 7 per cent, to a peak in 2003 where accidents were 12 per
cent and casualties were 11 per cent of all accidents. Since 2003, there has been a gradual
decline in the relative proportion of H&R injury accidents and casualties for all severities, except for
fatal H&R accidents and casualties (Chart 5a).
      Chart 5b: Relative proportion of hit and run accidents and casualties to all reported
         personal injury road accidents and resulting casualties: GB 1997- 2006

14%



12%                                                     Accidents


10%

                                                       Casualties

 8%



 6%



 4%



 2%



 0%
  1997   1998    1999    2000   2001      2002     2003     2004      2005      2006




                            54
Time of day

Table 5d shows that in 2006 half of all H&R injury accidents occurred between 9am and 6pm, with
a further 22 per cent occurring between 6pm and 10pm. Fatal accidents were more likely to occur
during evening hours than daytime. Conversely, slight accidents occurred more frequently during
daytime.

A greater proportion of H&R injury accidents occurred during 18:00–03:59 than all road accidents
at these times. Conversely, from 09:00 to 17:59 there was a lower proportion of H&R injury
accidents occurring than in all road accidents.


Table 5d: Reported personal injury road accidents involving at least one hit and
run driver/rider, by time of accident: GB 2006

                                                   Number/Percentage of accidents

                               H&R accidents                      All accidents

Time of accident         Fatal      Serious          Slight       Total          Total

                      22%        13%            8%         8%           5%
00:00 - 03:59          34        250          1,453        1,737         9,026
                      12%        11%           11%        11%           14%
04:00 - 08:59          18        210          2,152        2,380         26,508
                      20%        40%           51%        50%           57%
09:00 - 17:59          31        773          9,724        10,528        107,011
                      26%        24%           22%        22%           19%
18:00 - 21:59          40        457          4,210        4,707         36,440
                      19%        12%            7%         8%           5%
22:00 - 23:59          29        227          1,397        1,653         10,158


Total 1                  100%      100%             100%        100%          100%
                152        1,917         18,937        21,006        189,161


1
  Includes cases where time is missing


The percentage of casualties resulting from H&R injury accidents was similar to that for H&R
accidents.




                                  55
Location

Table 5e shows the breakdown of H&R injury accidents by severity and road types. Over one-third
of H&R injury accidents occurred on A roads, of which a quarter were on 30 mph roads. The vast
majority of H&R injury accidents happened on built-up roads (86 per cent), whilst only 3 per cent of
H&R injury accidents were on motorways. This concurs with the fact that slight accidents represent
over 90 per cent of all H&R accidents, and lower speeds tend to be associated with less damage to
the vehicle involved.

Table 5e: Reported personal injury road accidents involving at least one hit and run
driver/rider, by road type: GB 2006

                                                     Number/Percentage of H&R accidents
                                  1
                               FSA               Slight              Total

All built up roads2                           3%                 29%                 32%
                A roads           627              6,001               6,628
                                    1%                 9%                 10%
                B roads           207              1,846               2,053
                                    4%                 40%                 44%
                Other roads         929              8,397               9,326
                                    8%                 77%                 86%
                All roads          1,763             16,244               18,007

All Non-built up2                            1%                 6%                 7%
                A roads           160              1,319               1,479
                                    0%                 1%                 1%
                B roads            32                258               290
                                    0%                 3%                 3%
                Other roads          73                599               672
                                    1%                 10%                 12%
                All roads          265              2,176               2,441


                                    0%                 2%                 3%
All roads            Motorways           41                517               558
                                    4%                 35%                 39%
                A roads           787              7,320               8,107
                                    1%                 10%                 11%
                B roads           239              2,104               2,343
                                    5%                 43%                 48%
                Other roads         1,002             8,996               9,998
                                    10%                90%               100%
                Total            2,069             18,937               21,006


1
  Fatal or serious accident
2
  Excludes motorways


Vehicle and road user types

Table 5f shows the number and percentage of H&R vehicles involved in accidents by vehicle type.
In 2006, 83 per cent of H&R vehicles were cars. Since cars were involved in 77 per cent of all
personal injury road accidents, other vehicles are therefore under-represented in H&R accidents,
especially pedal cycles and motorcycles.

Table 5f: Hit and Run vehicles involved in reported personal injury road accidents involving at least one hit
and run driver/rider, by vehicle type: 2006

                                                           Number/Percentage of vehicles
                                H&R accidents                          All accidents

Road user type           Fatal       Serious          Slight           Total            Total


                      0%         0%            1%             1%                5%
Pedal cycle             1         23            205            229           16,611
                      0%         1%            3%             3%                7%
Motorcycle             7         110            557            674           24,323
                      1%         7%            75%            83%              77%
Car               131        1,591         16,128            17,850          267,991
                      0%         0%            2%             2%                3%
Bus                 1         36            349            386             9,133
                      0%         0%            6%             6%                4%
LGV                10          89           1,241           1,340          15,593
                      0%         0%            3%             3%                3%
HGV                12          59            624            695           11,336


All1                    1%         9%            90%            100%             100%
                 163        1,953         19,446            21,562          348,059

1
  Includes all road user types and cases where road user type was not reported




                                    56
Table 5g shows that, in all H&R injury accidents, 60 per cent of resulting casualties were male. A
quarter of casualties were 20–29 years old, whilst the age group 80–99 years was the only age
group where there were more female than male casualties reported. Over half of H&R casualties
were aged 20–49 years. This pattern is similar to the overall pattern of road casualties.

Table 5g: Casualties resulting from reported personal injury road accidents involving at least one hit
and run driver/rider, by age and gender: GB 2006

                                                      Number/Percentage of casualties
                               H&R casualties                        All casualties
                                                    1
                                                               Total1
Age of casualty          Male               Female            Total


                        2%              2%               3%              4%
0-9              491                380             871            10,233
                        3%              2%               6%              5%
10 - 14            844                572            1,416            12,070
                        9%              5%               14%             14%
15 - 19           2,203               1,316            3,520            36,796
                        15%              10%              25%             23%
20 - 29           3,729               2,447            6,177            60,129
                        12%              8%               20%             18%
30 - 39           3,052               1,900            4,953            46,034
                        9%              6%               15%             14%
40 - 49           2,181               1,508            3,689            36,983
                        5%              3%               8%              9%
50 - 59           1,175                848            2,024            23,537
                        2%              2%               4%              5%
60 - 69            542                417             959            13,155
                        1%              1%               2%              3%
70 - 79            211                210             421             8,277
                        0%              0%               1%              2%
80 - 99             88                117             205             4,802

All ages2                    60%              40%              100%             100%
              15,037               10,040            25,093            258,404

1
  Includes cases where sex was not reported
2
  Includes cases where age was not reported




Table 5h shows that 56 per cent of casualties in H&R injury accidents were car occupants. Over a
quarter of these H&R car occupant casualties were 20–29 years old, with a further 20 per cent
aged 30–39 years.

Table 5h: Casualties resulting from reported personal injury road accidents involving at least one hit and
run driver/rider, by casualty type and age: GB 2006

                                                           Number of H&R casualties
                                               Bus or
                         Pedal     Motorcycle     Car    Coach       LGV      HGV
                                                                      Total1
Age of casualty      Pedestrian      Cyclist  Rider/Passenger   Occupant   Occupant     Occupant   Occupant


0-9                391        88          0     370     13         5        2    871
10 - 14              744       379           9     259     12         7        0    1,416
15 - 19              903       376          490     1,695    21         25        5    3,520
20 - 29             1,163       588          396     3,810    57        122       24    6,177
30 - 39              880       553          300     2,989    65        111       31    4,953
40 - 49              651       363          222     2,277    52         75       35    3,689
50 - 59              435       180          73     1,227    36         36       21    2,024
60 - 69              230        74          27     564     33         15        9    959
70 - 79              143        20          3     228     22         1        0    421
80 - 99              101         4          1      79     11         0        0    205

All ages2            5,776      2,693        1,582    14,041     350        411       131   25,093
                23%       11%          6%     56%     1%         2%       1%    100%
% of H&R casualties
                12%        6%          9%     66%     3%         2%       1%    100%
% of all casualties


1
  Includes cases where gender was not reported
2
  Includes cases where age was not reported




                                     57
Charts 5c(i) and (ii) show the proportion of casualties involved in H&R injury accidents, by casualty
type, compared with the same proportions for all accidents. A smaller proportion of car occupants
were involved in H&R injury accidents than in all accidents (56 per cent compared to 66 per cent),
whilst a greater proportion of pedestrians and pedal cyclists were involved in H&R injury accidents
than in all accidents (34 per cent compared to 18 per cent).




      Chart 5c(i): Casualties involved in H&R accidents,             Chart 5c(ii): Casualties involved in all accidents,
      by casualty type: GB 2006                          by casualty type: GB 2006
                  Other, 2%
                                                         Other, 3%
            Goods vehicles, 2%
                                                 Goods vehicles, 3%
         Motorcycle, 6%
                                                Motorcycle, 9%


    Pedal cycle, 11%

                                           Pedal cycle, 6%




                              Car, 56%        Pedestrian, 12%



   Pedestrian, 23%                                                            Car, 66%




Regional

In 2006, nearly one-third of all H&R injury accidents and resulting casualties occurred in the North
West (approximately 15 per cent) or London (approximately 18 per cent). The North East, Wales
and Scotland had the lowest number of H&R injury accidents and resulting casualties (4 per cent).
The regional breakdown of H&R injury accidents is shown in Table 5i.

Table 5i: Reported personal injury road accidents involving at least one hit and run driver/rider, by
government office region: GB 2006

                                                     Number/Percentage of H&R accidents
                           FSA1
Government Office Region                               Slight                   Total


North East                      86        4%      714          4%          800      4%
North West                     289        14%     2,825        15%          3,114     15%
Yorkshire and the Humber              192        9%     1,749         9%          1,941     9%
East Midlands                   154        7%     1,193         6%          1,347     6%
West Midlands                   200        10%     2,178        12%          2,378     11%
East of England                  180        9%     1,571         8%          1,751     8%
South East                     216        10%     2,226        12%          2,442     12%
London                       452        22%     3,370        18%          3,822     18%
South West                     109        5%     1,484         8%          1,593     8%
Wales                        67        3%      850          4%          917      4%
Scotland                      124        6%      777          4%          901      4%


Great Britain                  2,069      100%      18,937        100%         21,006   100%


1
  Fatal or serious accidents




                                      58
The relative proportion of H&R injury accidents, comparing the number of H&R injury accidents to
the total number of reported personal injury road accidents, shows that London, West Midlands
and North West have the highest proportions (15, 13 and 13 per cent respectively). Scotland has
the lowest proportion (7 per cent). The relative casualty proportions are similar. These patterns are
likely to be associated with the patterns shown by road type in Table 5e.




                         59
6. The use of hospital data on road accidents

Barbara Noble and David Robinson, Transport Statistics: Road Safety, Department for
Transport
Chris Roebuck, The Information Centre for Health and Social Care


Key points

•  Hospital Episodes Statistics (HES) is a key source of information on the medical outcomes of
  more serious road accidents. This article describes the differences between HES and police
  data (STATS19), which is the main source used to track casualty rates, and explains why HES
  data have to be used with care for trend analysis.

•  Pedal cyclist casualties account for 17 per cent of HES road traffic accident casualties in
  England, but only 8 per cent in the STATS19 dataset. Accidents in which the pedal cyclist did
  not collide with another vehicle or object account for 60 per cent of the HES pedal cyclist
  casualties, but only 5 per cent of STATS19 pedal cyclist casualties.

•  Pedal cyclists admitted to hospital following collisions with motor vehicles are most likely to
  have injuries to the head or face (49 per cent) or legs or hips (36 per cent). Accidents in which
  there was no direct collision result in more injuries to the arms/shoulders (47 per cent).

Introduction

For many years, the police have provided data on road accidents reported to them involving
casualties, under the 'STATS19' system. This source provides almost all the data in this
publication.

During the 1990s, a new source of information on road traffic accidents for England became
available, known as Hospital Episode Statistics (HES). Similar systems also exist in Wales (Patient
Episode Database for Wales) and Scotland (Scottish Morbidity Record). HES is potentially an
excellent source of information on the medical outcomes of road accidents, but coverage and
trends in road accidents from the police and hospital sources differ in many ways.

This article:
• explains the differences between STATS19 and HES as data sources on road accidents
• considers factors affecting the analysis of trend data from HES
• gives an example of the type of analysis that can be done, using HES data on cycling
  casualties.




                         60
Hospital Episode Statistics (HES)

HES data on patient admissions for each 'Finished Consultant               Episode' (FCE) are collected on
behalf of the Information Centre for Health and Social Care               (IC), having been submitted by
hospitals from their local systems, known as 'Patient
Administrative Systems'. The most significant purpose for                ICD10 codes
hospitals submitting the information from their local systems is             Every diagnosis of injury or
ensuring the correct funding of hospitals by charging the                poisoning (ICD10 codes in
Primary Care Trust (PCT) responsible for the patient.                  sections S and T) should also
                                             be given an 'external cause',
Each HES record contains clinical details of the patient's                covered by codes in section V.
condition, coded to the International Classification of Diseases             The codes covering land
(ICD). The ICD codes allow the identification of patients whose             transport accidents are V01 to
injuries have been caused by a road traffic accident. The 10th              V89. Accidents involving trains
revision of ICD (ICD10)1 was introduced into the HES system               and non traffic injuries are then
in 1996. In contrast to ICD9, details of the vehicles involved              removed to identify road traffic
are included, and so from 1996 the HES system became a                  accidents.
useful source of information on road casualties.


Chart 6a: Percentage of (a) road traffic admissions and (b) seriously injured casualties by road user
type: England 2005/2006
                                             HGV
            HGV Other/unknown                     LGV     Other/unknown
       LGV
                                             1%
                 5%
             1%                            2%         1%
        1%
                      Pedestrian
Bus or Coach                               Bus or Coach
                                                    Pedestrian
                       19%
   2%                                    1%
                                                     22%



                                                      Pedal Cyclist
                                       Car
                          Pedal Cyclist
     Car
                                                        8%
                                       44%
                            17%
     37%



                                                   Motorcycle
                    Motorcycle
                                                    21%
                     18%
     a) HES finished emergency admissions                   b) STATS19 seriously injured
       excluding in-hospital deaths

Chart 6a shows that casualty data from HES and STATS19 have broadly similar breakdowns by
road user type. The most significant difference is between the proportions of pedal cyclists,
accounting for 17 per cent of HES admissions, but only 8 per cent of STATS19 serious casualties.

As an example of the type of analysis that can be done using HES data, pedal cycle casualties are
explored in more detail later in this article.




1
  ICD10 http://www.who.int/classifications/apps/icd/icd10online/


                                   61
Comparisons between HES and STATS19 definitions

There are many definitional differences between HES and STATS19. These are summarised in the
table below.



       STATS19                 HES

                           Covers only patients admitted to
Coverage   Confined to accidents on the public
       highway involving injury reported to  hospitals, which currently excludes
       the police, including slight injuries  attendance at A&E only. Includes
       where patients are not admitted to   accidents not reported to the police.
       hospital
                           ICD codes allow non-traffic accidents to
       Excludes confirmed suicides;      be excluded, but only where they are
       death from natural causes; injuries   known to have taken place off the
       to pedestrians with no vehicle     highway. Accidents are assumed to
       involvement (e.g. falls)        have occurred on the public highway
                           unless another place is specified.

                           Excludes patients not admitted to
                           hospital, e.g. treated in A&E, by GPs
                           etc, or not requiring professional
                           treatment.

Fatalities  Almost all fatalities within 30 days  Many fatalities take place at the scene
       of the accident are likely to be    of the crash or in A&E, and are never
       recorded                admitted to hospital.

                           Fatalities can be identified in HES, but
                           deaths may be later than 30 days after
                           the accident. These are identifiable if
                           they are still in hospital when they die.

Details of  Fatal, serious or slight only.     Very detailed coverage of medical
injury,                        diagnosis using ICD codes.
       'Serious' accidents include all
including
       admitted to hospital or any of the   Intensive investigations are likely to
severity
       following injuries: fractures,     lead to much more accurate severity
       concussion, internal injuries,     diagnosis
       crushings, non-friction burns,
       severe cuts, severe general shock
       requiring medical treatment and
       any injuries causing death 30 or
       more days after the accident.

       Note that severity is judged by the
       police, who are not medical
       experts and may misclassify
       serious injuries as slight or vice
       versa.




                         62
          STATS19                        HES

Duplicate      Unlikely                        Records created for each 'finished
records                                  admission episode'. The same patient
                                      can be counted more than once if they
                                      are discharged from hospital and then
                                      readmitted.

Details of     Extensive, including all vehicles           Few – confined to identifying vehicle
accident      involved, location of accident             type(s) or pedestrian involved.

                                      Likely to be fuller and more accurate,
Patient       Age (may be estimated), sex, home
                                      including home postcode in most
details       address postcode in about 75 per
                                      cases.
          cent of cases




In spite of these differences, it is possible to manipulate HES data to be broadly comparable to
STATS19, and this has been done in earlier studies.2,3 In particular, fatalities, off-road casualties
and duplicate records should be removed from the HES data, and comparisons between the
sources are only possible for those classified by STATS19 as 'serious'. All HES admission data in
this article are finished in year emergency admissions, excluding non traffic accidents and in-
hospital deaths. A full list of ICD10 codes used to compare with STATS19 road accidents can be
found on the web tables accompanying this article on the DfT’s website.4

In addition to definitional differences between STATS19 and HES, trends in the sources may also
differ due to a combination of a number of factors, including:
•  Changes in hospitals' practices or in how they record their data, particularly changes to the
  comparatively new HES system over time

•  A change in the proportion of road casualties admitted to hospital

•  A genuine change in the number of less severe, non-hospitalised casualties which are still
  classed as “serious” in STATS19 – many such cases will be handled in A&E only, and
  therefore are not recorded in the HES statistics

•  Changes in the police recording of injury severity

•  A change in the level of reporting of accidents by the public to the police. Note that there is not
  a duty on the public to report all personal injury road accidents to the police.5
The first point is covered in the following section.




2
 Road Safety Research Report No.69: Under-reporting of Road casualties Phase 1
http://www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/roadsafety/research/rsrr/theme5/underreportingofroadcasualti4788
3
 Road accident casualties: a comparison of STATS19 data with Hospital Episode Statistics
http://www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/roadsafety/research/rsrr/theme5/roadaccidentscasualtiescompa4787
4
RCGB2006 web tables http://www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/statistics/datatablespublications/accidents/
5
 Legal requirement http://www.collisionreporting.gov.uk./Law/default.asp


                                63
Development of Hospital Episode Statistics (HES)

As the HES system has evolved, there have been a number of significant factors which over time
have led to considerable improvements and changes to the data. The HES website6 contains the
following warning:
      Please exercise care when comparing HES figures for different years.

      Fluctuations in the data can occur for a number of reasons, e.g. organisational changes,
      reviews of best practice within the medical community, the adoption of new coding
      schemes and data quality problems that are often year specific. These variations can lead
      to false assumptions about trends.

      We advise users of time series data to carefully explore the relevant issues before drawing
      any conclusions about the reasons for year-on-year changes.

These organisational and administrative changes are discussed in this section.

Length of admissions from A&E
Chart 6b shows the number of nights casualties spent in hospital following admission from A&E.
The proportion of short stay admissions of 0 or 1 day was almost constant from 1995/96 to
2002/03, accounting for about 40 per cent of all road casualty admissions of known duration. This
proportion grew to 47 per cent in 2005/6.

           Chart 6b: Road traffic admissions from A&E, by length of stay:
           HES 1995/1996 - 2005/2006
       Number of admissions
      40,000

                                                        Unknown


      30,000

                                                        2 or more
                                                        days
      20,000

                                                        1 Day

      10,000


                                                        0 Days

         0
            95/96  96/97  97/98  98/99  99/00 00/01 01/02  02/03  03/04  04/05  05/06
                              Financial year


The overall increase in admissions of 17 per cent from 2002/3 to 2005/6 is accounted for by the
increases in admissions of 0 days (up 79 per cent) and 1 day (up 18 per cent), and also of
unknown duration (up 30 per cent). Admissions of 2 or more days slightly decreased (by 4 per
cent) over this period.




6
  HES website warning on trends www.hesonline.nhs.uk/Ease/servlet/ContentServer?siteID=1937&categoryID=484


                                64
       Chart 6c: Trends in admissions from A&E by length of stay:
       HES 1995/96 to 2005/06
     Index: 1995/96 = 100
      250
                                                    All A&E
                                                    0-1 days


     200



                                                   Road traffic
     150
                                                   0-1 days


                                                    All A&E
     100                                             2+ days




      50
      95/96  96/97    97/98  98/99  99/00  00/01  01/02  02/03  03/04  04/05  05/06
                           Financial year




It is likely that road casualty admissions are being driven by changes affecting all admissions from
A&E. Chart 6c shows overall trends (in index form) in admissions from A&E of duration 0 and 1
day, compared with 2 or more days. The impact of changes from 2002/03 to 2005/06 is
pronounced. Overall admissions of 0–1 days rose by 75 per cent, from 700 to 1,200 thousand. In
contrast there was a 1 per cent fall in admissions of 2+ days, from 890 to 879 thousand.

Chart 6c also shows road casualty admissions from A&E of 0–1 days, which increased from 13 to
18 thousand (39 per cent) from 2002/03 to 2005/06. This change was about half of that seen in
total admissions from A&E of this length.

Increasingly, practice for patients requiring short periods of observation and assessment has been
to use assessment or short-stay admission wards, determined locally, for monitoring and for the
benefit of the patient.

The rise in road traffic emergency admissions via A&E does not therefore necessarily equate to an
actual rise in the number of road traffic accidents but more likely reflects a change in practice over
this time.

Coverage, coding and IT systems
All hospitals have contributed to HES since its inception with full data held for 1989/90 onwards.
There is a target for hospitals to provide 98 per cent of coded data to a central unit within two
months.

Since 1996 there has been increased validation of external cause codes and other improvements
in coding. In addition, an improved IT system (HES2) was introduced in 2002/03, which allowed for
14 diagnosis codes, rather than seven previously. Some road casualties with extensive injuries
would require more than seven codes, and as the external cause is always the last in the
sequence, some road casualties would not have been recorded as such. Thus the noticeable
increase in road casualty numbers from 2002/03 described above may also have been partly
caused by this improvement in coding.




                              65
Payment by results
The recent introduction of 'Payment by Results'7 has led to a step change in the importance of
HES to the NHS, and hence of the accuracy and number of ICD10 codes attributed to each FCE.
Each PCT is charged for the hospital treatment of its residents, according to such factors as the
length of stay in hospital, the severity and number of their conditions, and other factors such as the
age of the patient.

Payment by results and a continuing effort to improve the accuracy of coding mean that there are
likely to be further improvements (and hence changes) to HES in the future.


Understanding trends in road accidents using HES and STATS19

The purposes of the HES and STATS19 datasets are different, although both are derived from
administrative sources. STATS19 was developed to provide detailed statistical reports of road
casualties, and has aimed to provide consistent data for trend analysis over time. However, this
relies on levels of reporting of road casualties to the police remaining constant, and there is some
evidence that this may not be the case.2,3

HES road casualty data are a by-product of a source whose key purpose is to provide
administrative and medical data to the health service. HES data are currently difficult to use for
monitoring trends in road casualties for the reasons discussed above. However, HES may develop
into a very powerful source if it proves possible to link information on the circumstances of road
accidents in STATS19 with medical information on casualties, with the potential to improve road
safety and treatment. This is discussed in more detail below.


Combining data sources

Plans are progressing to match individual HES and STATS19 records. Initially, this will be used to
estimate proportions of known road casualties appearing in both sources, in HES only, and in
STATS19 only. Seeing how these proportions have changed in recent years may help to
understand trends in road casualties which appear in either or both sources, but will not enable an
estimate to be made of all road casualties as many will not appear in either source. The challenge
will be to achieve a high level of matching, but it is not a straightforward process as there are only
limited fields (age, postcode of home address, gender, type of casualty, location, date of accident)
on which to match.




7
Payment by results
http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Policyandguidance/Organisationpolicy/Financeandplanning/NHSFinancialReforms/index.htm


                               66
In the longer term an anonymised matched database will have considerable potential use for
research into the medical consequences of road accidents, and should provide a powerful
evidence base for the development of effective policy to improve road and vehicle safety, reduce
the risk of injury and inform the treatment of casualties. Such databases exist already, including:

•  STATS19 and the Scottish hospital data (SHIPS) – linked datasets were created on an ad-hoc
  basis by the Transport Research Laboratories (TRL) for the research projects which are
  described in TRL Report 420 (1999).8
•  The Co-Operative Crash Injury Study (CCIS) has been investigating real-life car collisions in
  the UK since 1983 to understand car-occupant injury causation. In each investigation, a
  detailed examination of a collision-damaged car is correlated with the injuries to the occupants.
•  Data in a number of states of the USA, using 'CODES' software for probabilistic matching.9
•  A number of EU countries are also looking at linking road accident data and hospital data.10,11



Other data sources

In the longer term we may be able to make use of other sources of data that will help us to
understand trends in road traffic accidents, e.g. attendance at A&E, information from emergency
services, and from the insurance industry, but at present these data are not available to a common
format or submitted to central databases.

The Scottish Household Survey has included questions about road accidents in interviews
conducted from February 1999 to March 2003, and from 2005 onwards.12,13 Following a pilot in the
Office of National Statistic’s Omnibus survey14 questions on road accidents were also added to the
DfT’s National Travel Survey (NTS) in January 2007. The first data will be available in summer
2008. In future, the NTS will provide an independent, non-administrative source, but sample sizes
will be too small to provide any information other than broad trends at the national level.




8
 Linkage of STATS19 and Scottish hospital in-patient data – analyses for 1980-1995
http://www.trl.co.uk/store/report_detail.asp?srid=2579&pid=108
9
 Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (CODES)
www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/departments/nrd-30/ncsa/CODES.html
10
  SafetyNet Work Package1.6 – 'Estimation of the real number of road accident casualties'
www.erso.eu/safetynet/content/wp_1_care_accident_data_1.htm
11
  International Traffic Safety Data and Analysis Group (IRTAD), Special Reports
http://cemt.org/IRTAD/IRTADPublic/irtadpub.htm
12
  Road Accidents Scotland 2005
http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2006/11//0
13
  Household Transport in 2005: some Scottish Household Survey results
http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2006/10//0
14
  Experiences of road accidents – Piloting new questions for the National Travel Survey
http://www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/statistics/datatablespublications/personal/methodology/roadaccnewntsquestions




                                67
HES pedal cyclists casualties

This section uses HES data to look at pedal cyclist road accident casualties. Pedal cyclists are
among the most vulnerable road users but previous research has shown that they are
underrepresented within STATS19.3 Chart 6a shows that in England in the financial year
2005/2006 pedal cyclists accounted for 8 per cent of all seriously injured casualties in STATS19,
and 17 per cent of emergency road traffic admissions recorded in HES.


Table 6a: Pedal cyclist casualties, by collision type: England 2005/2006

                        HES                STATS19
Collision type            Number     Per cent      Number      Per cent

No collision1                          60                  5
                      4,268                 101

Collision with2:                        31                 91
                      2,186                1,899
                                 3                  5
Object                    242                 100
                                 0                  0
Pedestrian / animal              34                  4
                                 1                  1
Cyclist                    89                  12
                                 1                  2
Motorcycle                  50                  42
                                23                 77
Car / LGV                 1,592                1,616
                                 1                  5
HGV / Bus                  102                 109
                                 1                  1
Other vehicle                 77                  16

Total3                            100                 100
                      7,065                2,092
1 HES: Fall or thrown from pedal cycle (without antecedent collision),
STATS19: Single vehicle accidents, no pedestrian/animal, no object hit.
2 STATS19: If a pedal cyclist has been recorded as colliding with an object and is involved in an accident
with another vehicle, only the collision with the object will be shown here.
3 Includes accidents in which it is unknown whether the pedal cyclists collided with a vehicle or object.




Table 6a compares the collision types for admissions in HES with those in STATS19. Pedal
cyclists injured in road accidents who are admitted to hospital are included in STATS19 as
seriously injured casualties, provide they are reported to the police. However, in 2005/2006 there
were about two thousand seriously injured pedal cyclists casualties in STATS19 in England,
compared to about seven thousand hospital admissions recorded in HES (both excluding deaths).

Accidents in which the pedal cyclist did not collide with another vehicle or object (for example falls
or throws) account for the majority of this difference. They make up only 5 per cent of seriously
injured casualties in STATS19 but account for 60 per cent of admissions in HES. This disparity
may be due to a couple of factors. Firstly, if the location of the accident is not specified in the
patient’s records it will be assumed that is was a traffic accident. This may mean that some off-
road accidents are included and non-collision accidents may be particularly vulnerable to this.
Secondly, accidents in which the pedal cyclist is the only participant are relatively unlikely to be
reported to the police.

For pedal cyclist accidents involving motorcycles, cars, goods vehicles and buses there is little
difference between the number of pedal cyclist casualties in HES and STATS19.

Charts 6d and 6e shows the distribution of HES admissions and STATS19 seriously injured
casualties by age for all accidents (6d) and collision only accidents (6e).




                                       68
        Chart 6d: All pedal cyclist road traffic casualties by age:
        England 2005/2006
                                                  HES   STATS19
    Admissions / Seriously injured casualties
    1,500




    1,000




     500




      0
         0-4   5-7   8-11  12-15  16-19  20-29  30-39  40-49  50-59  60-69  70-79   80+
                               Age band

The biggest difference between the numbers in HES and STATS19 is for children (aged 0-15) for
whom there are 6 times as many admissions in HES as there are seriously injured casualties in
STATS19. However, 70 per cent of the admissions in this age group were not the result of a
collision accident. 2,006 of the 4,268 (47 per cent) non collision accident admissions were children,
compared to 610 of the 2,186 (28 per cent) collision accident admissions.

The smallest difference between the two sources is for pedal cyclists aged 20-29, for whom there
are twice as many admissions in HES as seriously injured casualties in STATS19.


        Chart 6e: Collision only pedal cyclist road traffic casualties by age:
        England 2005/2006
    Admissions / Seriously injured casualties                          HES   STATS19
     500



     400



     300



     200



     100



      0
         0-4   5-7   8-11  12-15  16-19  20-29  30-39  40-49  50-59  60-69  70-79   80+
                               Age band



The two series more closely resemble each other when accidents in which there was no collision
are excluded as shown in chart 6e. There are still more child and aged 50 and over pedal cyclist
admissions in HES than seriously injured casualties in STATS19 but the reverse is true for cyclists
aged 20 to 39.




                               69
There is also a relatively minor difference between HES and STATS19 in the proportion of pedal
cyclist casualties that are male or female. 82 per cent of seriously injured casualties in STATS19
are male compared to 79 per cent of admissions in HES. This difference is more pronounced for
child casualties – 85 per cent of child casualties in STATS19 are male, compared to 79 per cent in
HES.

Percentage of road traffic pedal cyclist admissions with injuries to each body region: HES
2005/2006



                      Head/Face 39%
                                             Neck 2%

                                             Upper back / Thorax 5%
               Arms / Shoulders 43%

                                               Lower back / Pelvis 8%

                  Legs / Hips 24%




Percentages add up to more than 100 as a casualty may have injuries to more than one body region.

The illustration shows the distribution of injuries to pedal cyclists admitted to hospital. Most
admissions are as a result of injuries to the head/face or to the arms/shoulders. However the
legs/hips were injured in around a quarter of admissions. Neck injuries were involved in only 2 per
cent of admissions. This compares to 14 per cent of car users who were admitted with an injured
neck.

Table 6b: Pedal cyclist admissions, by collision type and body region: HES 2005/2006

                     In collision with:
                                           No collision1       All admissions2
               Motor vehicle          Object
                                                                3
                          3              3             3
                                                       Number per cent
Body region        Number   per cent    Number    per cent    Number  per cent


                       49             48             35           39
Head/face            897            115            1,504           2,785
                       36             22             20           24
Legs/hips            662              53           850            1,716
                       11             10              7            8
Lowerback/pelvis        209              23           281             575
                       3              5             1            2
Neck               51              12            42            120
                       10              5             3            5
Upperback/Thorax        180              13           115             339
                       33             39             47           43
Arms/shoulders         608              95          2,015           3,021

All injuries3                100             100           100            100
               1,818            242            4,268           7,065
1 Fall or thrown from pedal cycle (without antecedent collision)
2 Includes collisions with pedestrians, animals, other cyclists and other non motor vehicles
3 Percentages may add up to more than 100 as a casualty may have injuries to more than one body region. Percentages
for neck, upper back/thorax and arms/shoulders should be treated with caution as they are based on small numbers.




                                     70
Table 6b shows which collisions results in which type of injuries. Pedal cyclists admitted following
collisions with motor vehicles are most likely to have injuries to the head or face (49 per cent) or
legs or hips (36 per cent). Accidents in which there was no direct collision result in more injuries to
the arms/shoulders (47 per cent). These accidents result in a much lower proportion of head/face
injuries (35 per cent) than collision accidents. This may be because these cases are largely falls or
throws in which the cyclist is more likely to be able to protect their head using their arms, which
results in more arm / shoulder injuries.



       Chart 6f: Pedal cycle admissions by duration and collision type:
       HES 2005/06
     Percentage of admissions
     100%
                                               8 or more days


     80%
                                               4-7 days

     60%
                                               2-3 days

     40%
                                               1 day

     20%

                                               0 days
      0%
          No collision (4,266)  Collision with object (242) Collision with motor
                                     vehicle (1,818)
                  Collision type (number of admissions)


Chart 6f shows the duration of emergency admissions by the type of collision the pedal cyclist was
in. Pedal cyclists who had no collision tend to be admitted for shorter periods than those in
collisions with motor vehicles or other objects. 86 per cent of casualties in no collision accidents
were admitted for less than 4 days compared to 80 per cent of those in collisions with objects and
73 per cent of those in collisions with motor vehicles.

This information from HES allows us to begin to look at the relationship between accident
circumstances and the resulting injuries. However a matched STATS19 / HES database will allow
us to look into greater detail at this relationship. For instance, in the case of pedal cyclists, the
matched database could use the first point of contact information from STATS19 with the
diagnostic information from HES to help us to understand the cause of injuries to particular parts of
the body. Or it may allow us to look at how the severity and kind of injuries in accidents between
cyclists and motor vehicles changes if the motor vehicle was exceeding the speed limit.




                              71
Acknowledgements
DfT would like to thank the staff at the Information Centre for helping us to understand HES, and
contributing to this paper, especially Chris Roebuck, Kate Croft and John Reed.




                        72
Notes

The main tables in this publication analyse road accidents, casualties, the vehicles involved and
their drivers. Both numbered and lettered tables are included in the index at the end of the volume.

The statistics refer to personal injury accidents on public roads (including footways) which become
known to the police. For the definition of accidents included see “Definitions, symbols and
conventions”. In particular, the following are not included:

     (a) damage-only accidents, with no human casualties.

     (b) accidents which do not become known to the police, or which only become known 30 or
     more days after their occurrence.

     (c) reported accidents not recorded.

Very few, if any, fatal accidents do not become known to the police1. However, research has
shown that an appreciable proportion of non-fatal injury accidents are not reported to the police
and thus are not included in this publication. There is no legal obligation to report accidents,
provided the parties concerned exchange personal details at the scene. In addition a fifth of
casualties reported to the police were estimated to be unrecorded. Studies confirm the view that
the police are more likely to underestimate severity of injury because of the difficulty in
distinguishing severity at the scene of the accident. The Department has recently (June 2006)
published two further reports, Under-reporting of road accidents: Phase 1 (Road Safety Research
Report 69) by Heather Ward, Ronan Lyons and Roselle Thoreau which includes a review of earlier
studies and provides estimates of this shortfall and the related document, Road accident
casualties: a comparison of STATS19 data with Hospital Episodes Statistics. Consistent data is
required for monitoring trends, this relies on levels of reporting of road accidents remaining
constant, however some doubts have been raised that this may not be the case. The Department
is undertaking further research to investigate whether levels of reporting have changed. Further
information on levels of reporting can be found on the Department’s website at:

http://www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/statistics/datatablespublications/accidents


From the beginning of 2005 most police forces in England and Wales adopted a standard form,
MG NCRF, for reporting road accidents. The statistics pages for this report are reproduced in this
volume. Instructions for the Completion of Road Accident Reports (STATS20, 2005), a manual
published by the Department for Transport, the Scottish Executive and the Welsh Assembly, gives
more detail on the definitions used in collection. Copies are available on the Department's website
at the address below, or may be obtained from the Department for Transport, Zone 3/19, Great
Minster House, 76 Marsham Street, London, SW1P 4DR (Tel 4 ext 3078).

http://www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/statistics/datatablespublications/accidents/casualtiesgbar/stats20instructi
onsforthecom5094

Relevant background data on population, vehicle stock, traffic, road length, etc, are also given in
tables 1a, 1b, 40, 42 and 46a. In 2000, the September fuel dispute led to a decline in car and taxi
traffic for that year. The widespread outbreak of Foot and Mouth disease in 2001 and the control
measures put in place also had an effect on traffic. Further information is available in Road
Statistics 2006: Traffic, Speeds and Congestion.

http://www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/statistics/datatablespublications/roadstraffic/speedscongestion/roadstatst
sc/roadstats06tsc

1
Up to and including 1983 there were some missing details of fatalities in the Metropolitan Police district (see Road Accidents Great
Britain 1984)


                                  73
Tables 5-7c, 30b, 38b and 46b in the main body of tables of the report include an average of
aggregated accident and casualty data for the years 1994 to 1998. The average for these years
represents the baseline figure for the national road casualty reduction targets. All data in the main
body of tables which relate to children refer to persons aged 0-15 unless otherwise stated. Table
12 summarises the numbers of accidents, casualties and vehicles involved in road accidents which
are available for detailed analysis in 2006. Tables 46a and b show these totals by local authority;
the individual figures are, however, liable to differ slightly from those available locally because local
authorities may continue to incorporate corrections long after the end of the year.

The detailed analyses of casualty, driver and vehicle details and of accident circumstances give
totals which vary slightly from table to table because of occasional incomplete reporting of the
relevant details. However, the general relationship between the various sub-totals is not materially
affected.




                          74
Notes to individual main tables
Table 2. The completeness of reporting injuries may vary over such a long time period. The reporting
rate is especially influenced by public attitudes about reporting to the police, and the police
awareness of the requirement to collect a defined long range of slight injury accidents.

Table 11. The figures relate to drivers (or riders) of cars, motor vehicles and motorcycles involved in
accidents, whether or not the driver was a casualty. The first line gives the number of all such drivers
of accident involved vehicles, including those who were not with their vehicles or not contacted by the
police, as well as cases where injury or circumstances would have prevented a breath test. The
second line gives the number required to take a breath test near the place of the accident, or at a
hospital in the case of a casualty admitted there as a patient, provided the doctor in charge of the
patient has not objected; it does not include breath tests at a police station following an arrest. The
fourth line gives the number of positive tests, which indicated a breath alcohol concentration in
excess of 35 micrograms per 100 millilitres of blood, plus the number of drivers required to provide a
breath test who either refused or failed to provide a specimen of breath. No account is taken of
whether or not a possible second breath test, or blood or urine test, confirmed the results, and
whether or not a prosecution followed.

Table 12. The casualties in columns 3 to 6 are those resulting from the accidents in column 1. They
are classified by severity of injury suffered by the casualty (columns) and by the severity of accident,
i.e. of the most severely injured casualty in the accident (rows).

Table 13. Provides for each speed limit in common use, the number of accidents and casualties on
major roads – motorways (including A(M) roads) and A roads – and on minor roads. An accident on a
road with any other limit is included with those of the next higher limit.

Table 14. The total number of accidents is classified according to the number of each severity of
injury resulting from them.

Table 16. “Raining” includes drizzle, hail and sleet not tending to build up a deposit. “Snowing”
includes sleet building up a deposit. “Fog” does not include light mist if it does not constitute a driving
hazard on the road where the accident occurred.

Table 18. Carriageway hazards are recorded as such, whether or not the animal or object concerned
was hit and whether or not its presence is known to have contributed to the accident. “Other object in
carriageway” comprises those not expected to be found in the carriageway; it does not include
permanent features such as a bollard or pedestrian refuge. “Animal in carriageway” includes led
animals, but not ridden horses which are recorded separately on the accident statistics report.

Table 19. An accident is considered to be at a junction if it is within 20 metres of an intersection or
roundabout. Grade separated crossings (by bridge or underpass) are not junctions. “Roundabout”
includes mini-roundabout junctions, “T junction” includes slip roads joining dual carriageways.
“Crossroads” includes only junctions where the alignments of both of the roads are uninterrupted,
whatever the angle of the crossing, i.e. the arms are not staggered. If there is more than one junction
within 20 metres of the accident, the nearest is coded.

Table 20. This table only covers accidents where one vehicle is involved. It does not cover accidents
involving two or more vehicles.

Table 21. In column 6, “other combination” means one or both vehicles not a car.

Table 23 a (Urban Roads), b (Rural Roads) and c (All Roads). Columns 1 and 2 give, for each
vehicle type, the number of accidents in which only one such vehicle was involved, showing the user
casualties and any pedestrian casualties involved; e.g., in Table 23c, 380 accidents involved only a
pedal cycle, giving rise to 384 cyclist casualties (riders and passengers); a further 202 accidents also
involved 205 pedestrian casualties as well as 60 cyclist casualties.

                          75
Columns 3 to 10 analyse two-vehicle accidents according to both vehicle types, also giving, by
severity of injury, the casualties for the users of the vehicle class defined on the left (under vehicle A)
and pedestrians who were (first) hit by vehicles of that class. Thus 13,182 accidents involved a pedal
cycle and a car, resulting in 13,112 pedal cyclist casualties and 15 pedestrian casualties hit by the
pedal cycle. The car user casualties and pedestrians hit by cars, in these same accidents, appear in
the fourth group of column 3. Where both vehicles are of the same class, the casualties refer to those
deriving from both vehicles, e.g. 56 accidents involved two pedal cycles with 71 cyclist casualties with
1 pedestrian first hit by one or other pedal cycle.

Column 11 shows the total number of two vehicle accidents for the vehicle class defined on the left
(under vehicle A).

Column 12 includes all accidents involving 3 or more vehicles, at least one of which is of the class on
the left (under vehicle A), together with casualties associated with that class in such accidents; e.g.
507 such accidents involved at least one pedal cycle, with 532 cyclist casualties and no pedestrians
involved. Other casualties in these accidents would appear against the other vehicle classes
concerned.

Column 13 is the sum of columns 1, 2, 11, and 12. In multi-vehicle accidents, the accidents (but not
casualties) are multi-counted; e.g. the total number of accidents involving goods vehicles is 14,790
light goods vehicles (LGV) and 10,466 heavy goods vehicles (HGV) less the 424 accidents which
involved both an HGV and a LGV and less any of the 3 or more vehicle accidents which involved at
least one of each.

Table 25. The table gives the number of casualties in accidents involving different types of vehicle.
As a large proportion of accidents involve two or more vehicles, not necessarily of the same type,
many casualties will be counted in two or more columns of this table. Pedestrian casualties are
included under each type of vehicle involved in the accident. For example (first row, under the
heading “Car”), 457 road users were killed in accidents on built-up A roads in which a car was
involved.

Table 26. The casualty rates, for a particular type of vehicle, have been calculated by dividing the
number of user or pedestrian casualties by the total amount of traffic estimated for the particular type
of vehicle on a particular class of road.

Table 27. This table shows the number of casualties in fatal, serious, and slight accidents for each of
the road user types listed and these are further split by drivers or riders and passengers.

Table 28. Casualty rates are calculated by dividing the number of casualties of each road user type
by the total number of vehicle kilometres travelled by that vehicle type each month. In calculating
rates, no allowance has been made for the number of persons per vehicle, which may vary from
month to month.

The table shows separate monthly casualties in respect of motorcycles and passenger car users as
distinct from the remainder of the “car” category. Monthly rates are only possible for the groups
shown.

Table 33. A “zebra” crossing has broad black and white stripes on the road and orange flashing
beacons. A “pelican” or “puffin” crossing has lights controlling the traffic including a flashing amber
phase, and lights controlling pedestrians (or pedestrians and cyclist/horse riders) including a flashing
“green man” phase. This category also includes any crossing with traffic lights which is not a
pelican/puffin/toucan crossing but which has an indicator light for pedestrians only. “Light controlled
junction (with pedestrian phase)” is any crossing with traffic lights at a junction, with a “green man
phase” or other indicator light for pedestrians, this does not include normal traffic signals with
pedestrian stud crossing points but no special indicator lights for pedestrians. Crossings with “human



                          76
control” are those controlled by school crossing (“lollipop”) patrols and other authorised persons
(police, traffic wardens).

Tables 37 and 39. See note to table 11 for the coverage of breath test data. The small number of
breath tests which have been recorded as carried out on pedal cyclists and drivers of non motor
vehicles have been excluded.

Table 40. This table shows the number of vehicles involved in fatal, serious, and slight accidents and
data for other vehicles (ie taxis and minibuses) that usually come within the definition of a “car” in this
publication.

Table 42. Although a few pedal cycles were reported as having been involved in accidents on
motorways (see Table 41), no attempt is made to estimate cycle traffic on motorways nor to calculate
corresponding rates. In other cells of the table, the rates are subject to uncertainty because of the
small number of involvements (see Table 41) and because the traffic estimates are based on a small
number of counting points.

Table 44. “Skidded” does not include vehicles which also jack-knifed. A vehicle which, as a result of
the accident, was at any time on its roof, side, front or rear is recorded as having overturned, even
though it may have come to rest on its wheels.

Table 45. In all cases the manoeuvres are those being performed immediately before the accident.
For definition of “at a junction” see note to Table 19.

Table 46. Revised 1994-98 baseline figures have been agreed with a number of local authorities,
where they have been able to demonstrate that the averages shown above are not an accurate
reflection of their casualty numbers over the period. The revised baselines are used by DfT to
monitor local highway authority progress against the casualty reduction targets. The figures shown
are the actual figures held by DfT, not the revised baselines.

Table 50. This table compares the number of registered road deaths (as published by the Registrars
General) with all accidental deaths and with deaths from all causes (both of which include registered
road deaths). Road deaths published by the Registrars General are based on the date of death as
opposed to the date of death registration. They differ from the STATS19 figures that are restricted to
deaths within 30 days of an accident. Year to year fluctuations occur due to time lags between
accident and death and registration of death.

Table 51. Due to lack of available traffic data for the majority of the countries, fatality rates per billion
vehicle kilometres are not shown in this years data.

Table 52. There have been a number of small revisions to this table but these have had little effect
on the comparisons of the different modes.

The air passenger casualty rates for 1999 have been revised following notification from the Civil
Aviation Authority of a downward revision to the air casualties in that year. For rail, changes in
reporting regulations mean that serious and minor injuries are no longer collected; only casualties
taken from the scene of the accident to hospital are included in these figures.

Passenger casualty rates given in the table can be interpreted as the risk a traveller runs of being
injured, per billion kilometres travelled. The coverage varies for each mode of travel and the
definitions of injuries and accidents are different. Thus care should be exercised in drawing
comparisons between the rates for different modes.

The table provides information on passenger casualties and where possible travel by drivers and
other crew in the course of their work has been excluded. Exceptions are for private journeys and
those in company owned cars and vans where drivers are included. Figures for all modes of transport
exclude confirmed suicides and deaths through natural causes. Figures for air, rail and water exclude


                           77
trespassers and rail excludes attempted suicides. Accidents occurring in airports, seaports and
railway stations that do not directly involve the mode of transport concerned are also excluded; for
example, injuries sustained on escalators or falling over packages on platforms.

The following definitions are used:

Air: Accidents involving UK registered airline aircraft in UK and foreign airspace. Fixed wing and
rotary wing aircraft are included but air taxis are excluded. Accidents cover UK airline aircraft around
the world not just in the UK.

Rail: Train accidents and accidents occurring through movement of railway vehicles in Great Britain.
As well as national rail the figures include accidents on underground and tram systems, Eurotunnel
and minor railways.

Water: Figures for travel by water include both domestic and international passenger carrying
services of UK registered merchant vessels.

Road: Figures refer to Great Britain and include accidents occurring on the public highway (including
footways) in which at least one road vehicle or a vehicle in collision with a pedestrian is involved and
which becomes known to the police within 30 days of its occurrence. Figures include both public and
private transport. More information and analyses on road accidents and casualties can be found in
Part 4: Road traffic, freight, accidents and motor vehicle offences.

Bus or coach: Figures for work buses are included.

Car: Includes taxis, invalid tricycles, three and four wheel cars and minibuses. Prior to 1999 motor
caravans were also included.

Van: Vans mainly include vehicles of the van type constructed on a car chassis. These are defined as
those vehicles not over 3.5 tonnes maximum permissible gross vehicle weight.

Motorcycles: Mopeds, motor scooters and two-wheeled motor vehicles (including motor cycle
combinations).

Pedal cycle: Includes tandems, tricycles and toy cycles ridden on the carriageway.

Pedestrian: Includes persons riding toy cycles on the footway, persons pushing bicycles, pushing or
pulling other vehicles or operating pedestrian controlled vehicles, those leading or herding animals,
occupants of prams or wheelchairs, and people who alight safely from vehicles and are subsequently
injured.

Table 53. This new table shows the number of foreign registered vehicles, the number of accidents
involving these vehicles and casualties arising from these accidents. Where vehicles types are
specified, only the foreign registered vehicle categories relevant to that vehicle type are included (e.g.
Motorcycles erroneously coded as "foreign registered – left hand drive" will not be included in the
Motorcycles rows). However, in the Other vehicles and All vehicles rows, all foreign registered
vehicles are included, regardless of whether the foreign registration category is a valid match for the
vehicle type.




                          78
Definitions, symbols and conventions

Accident: Involves personal injury occurring on the public highway (including footways) in
which at least one road vehicle or a vehicle in collision with a pedestrian is involved and which
becomes known to the police within 30 days of its occurrence. The vehicle need not be moving
and accidents involving stationary vehicles and pedestrians or users are included. One
accident may give rise to several casualties. “Damage-only” accidents are not included in this
publication.

Adults: Persons aged 16 years and over (except where otherwise stated).

Agricultural vehicles: Mainly comprises agricultural tractors (whether or not towing) but also
includes mobile excavators and front dumpers.

Built-up roads: Accidents on “built-up roads” are those which occur on roads with speed limits
(ignoring temporary limits) of 40 mph or less. “Non built-up roads” refer to speed limits over 40
mph. Motorway accidents are shown separately and are excluded from the totals for built-up
and non built-up roads.

Buses and coaches: Buses or coaches equipped to carry 17 or more passengers, regardless
of use.

Cars: Includes taxis, estate cars, three and four wheel cars and minibuses except where
otherwise stated (i.e. Tables 22, 27, 28, and 40). Also includes motor caravans prior to 1999.

Casualty: A person killed or injured in an accident. Casualties are sub-divided into killed,
seriously injured and slightly injured.

Children: Persons under 16 years of age (except where otherwise stated).

Darkness: From half an hour after sunset to half an hour before sunrise, i.e. “lighting-up time”.

Daylight: All times other than darkness.

DfT: Department for Transport

Drivers: Persons in control of vehicles other than pedal cycles, motorcycles and ridden animals
(see riders). Other occupants of vehicles are passengers.

Failed breath test: Drivers or riders who were tested with a positive result, or who failed or
refused to provide a specimen of breath (see note on Table 11 in "Notes to individual tables"
for the coverage of breath test data).

Fatal accident: An accident in which at least one person is killed.

Goods vehicles: These are divided into two groups according to vehicle weight. They include
tankers, tractor units travelling without their semi-trailers, trailers, articulated vehicles and pick-
up trucks.

    Heavy goods vehicles (HGV): Goods vehicles over 3.5 tonnes maximum permissible
    gross vehicle weight (gvw).

    Light goods vehicles (LGV): Goods vehicles, mainly vans (including car derived vans),
    not over 3.5 tonnes maximum permissible gross vehicle weight.


                         79
Injury accident: An accident involving human injury or death.

Killed: Human casualties who sustained injuries which caused death less than 30 days (before
1954, about two months) after the accident. Confirmed suicides are excluded.

KSI: Killed or seriously injured.

Light Goods Vehicle (LGV): see Goods vehicles

Motorcycles: Two-wheel motor vehicles, including mopeds, motor scooters and motor cycle
combinations.

Motorways: Motorway and A(M) roads.

Other roads: All C class and unclassified roads (unless otherwise noted).

Other vehicles: Other motor vehicles include ambulances, fire engines, trams, refuse vehicles,
road rollers, agricultural vehicles, excavators, mobile cranes, electric scooters and motorised
wheelchairs etc, except where otherwise stated (i.e. Table 28). Other non motor vehicles
include those drawn by an animal, ridden horses, wheelchairs without a motor, street barrows
etc, except where otherwise stated (i.e. Table 28). In certain tables “other vehicles” may also
include buses and coaches and/or goods vehicles, as indicated in a footnote.

Passengers: Occupants of vehicles, other than the person in control (the driver or rider).
Includes pillion passengers.

Pedal cycles: Includes tandems, tricycles and toy cycles ridden on the carriageway. From 1983
the definition includes a small number of cycles and tricycles with battery assistance with a
maximum speed of 15 mph.

Pedal cyclists: Riders of pedal cycles, including any passengers.

Pedestrians: Includes children riding toy cycles on the footway, persons pushing bicycles,
pushing or pulling other vehicles or operating pedestrian-controlled vehicles, those leading or
herding animals, children in prams or buggies, and people who alight safely from vehicles and
are subsequently injured.

Riders: Persons in control of pedal cycles, motorcycles or ridden animals. Other occupants of
these vehicles are passengers.

Road users: Pedestrians and vehicle riders, drivers and passengers.

Rural Roads: Major roads and minor roads outside urban areas and having a population of
less than 10 thousand. Motorways in rural areas are shown separately and (with the exception
of Tables 23a, b and c) are excluded from the totals for rural roads.

Serious accident: One in which at least one person is seriously injured but no person (other
than a confirmed suicide) is killed.

Serious injury: An injury for which a person is detained in hospital as an “in-patient”, or any of
the following injuries whether or not they are detained in hospital: fractures, concussion,
internal injuries, crushings, burns (excluding friction burns), severe cuts, severe general shock
requiring medical treatment and injuries causing death 30 or more days after the accident. An
injured casualty is recorded as seriously or slightly injured by the police on the basis of



                        80
information available within a short time of the accident. This generally will not reflect the
results of a medical examination, but may be influenced according to whether the casualty is
hospitalised or not. Hospitalisation procedures will vary regionally.

Severity: Of an accident; the severity of the most severely injured casualty (either fatal, serious
or slight). Of a casualty; killed, seriously injured or slightly injured.

Slight accident: One in which at least one person is slightly injured but no person is killed or
seriously injured.

Slight injury: An injury of a minor character such as a sprain (including neck whiplash injury),
bruise or cut which are not judged to be severe, or slight shock requiring roadside attention.
This definition includes injuries not requiring medical treatment.

Speed limits: Permanent speed limits applicable to the roadway.

Taxi: Any vehicle operating as a hackney carriage, regardless of construction, and bearing the
appropriate district council or local authority hackney carriage plates. Also includes private hire
cars.

Users of a vehicle: All occupants, i.e. driver (or rider) and passengers, including persons
injured while boarding or alighting from the vehicle.

Urban Roads: Major and minor roads within an urban area with a population of 10 thousand or
more. The definition is based on the 1991 Office of the Deputy Prime Minister definition of
urban settlements. The urban areas used for this bulletin are based on 2001 census data.
Motorways in urban areas are shown separately and (with the exception of Tables 23a, b and
c) are excluded from the totals for urban roads.

Vehicles: Vehicles (except taxis) are classified according to their structural type and not
according to their employment or category of licence at the time of an accident.

Vehicles involved in accidents: Vehicles whose drivers or passengers are injured, which hit
and injure a pedestrian or another vehicle whose driver or passengers are injured, or which
contribute to the accident. Vehicles which collide, after the initial accident which caused injury,
are not included unless they aggravate the degree of injury or lead to further casualties.
Includes pedal cycles ridden on the footway.


Symbols and conventions used

Rounding of figures: In tables where figures have been rounded, there may be an apparent
slight discrepancy between the sum of the constituent items and the total as shown.

Symbols: The following symbols have been used throughout:

0 = nil or negligible (less than half the final digit shown).

.. = not available/applicable.

Conversion factor: 1 kilometre = 0.6214 mile.




                         81
CHARTS
  Chart 1a - Indices of population, vehicle stock, motor traffic and
            casualties : 1949 - 2006

      1949 = 100
1200


             Population      Vehicles
1000
             Traffic        Killed
             Injured
800


600


400


200


 0
  1949   1954    1959    1964   1969    1974   1979  1984  1989  1994  1999   2004




  Chart 1b - Indices of population, vehicle stock, motor traffic and
            casualties : 1996 - 2006

 1994 - 98 average = 100
140


120


100


 80


 60


           Population        Vehicles
 40
           Traffic         Killed
 20         Injured


  0
  1996   1997     1998    1999     2000    2001  2002  2003  2004   2005   2006




                              84
        Chart 2a - Indices of casualties by road user type:
           Killed or seriously injured: 1996 - 2006

1994-98 average = 100

140


120


100


80


60


40
        Pedestrians       Pedal cyclists
20      Motorcyclists      Car users

 0
 1996   1997    1998  1999     2000    2001  2002  2003  2004  2005  2006




            Chart 2b - Indices of casualties by road user type :
                   All severities : 1996 - 2006

1994-98 average = 100

140


120


100


80


60


40
        Pedestrians      Pedal cyclists
20
        Motorcyclists     Car users

0
1996    1997    1998  1999     2000    2001  2002  2003  2004  2005  2006




                            85
             Chart 3a - Indices of casualties by age band:
              Killed or seriously injured: 1996 - 2006

1994-98 average = 100

120


100


80


60


40        0-4       5-15

          16-59      60 plus
20


 0
 1996   1997      1998  1999    2000  2001    2002  2003  2004  2005  2006




             Chart 3b - Indices of casualties by age band:
                  All severities: 1996 - 2006

1994-98 average = 100

120


100


80


60


40         0-4       5-15

          16-59      60 plus
20


 0
 1996    1997      1998  1999    2000    2001  2002  2003  2004  2005  2006




                           86
   Chart 4a - Indices of casualties by road user type: Built-up roads:
          Killed or seriously injured: 1996 - 2006

1994-98 average = 100


140

120

100

80

60
           Pedestrians
40         Pedal cyclists
           Motorcyclists
           Car users
20

 0
 1996    1997     1998      1999  2000    2001  2002  2003  2004  2005  2006




Chart 4b - Indices of casualties by road user type: Non built-up roads:
        Killed or seriously injured: 1996 - 2006

1994-98 average = 100

140


120


100


80


60
            Pedestrians
            Pedal cyclists
40
            Motorcyclists
            Car users
20


 0
 1996    1997     1998      1999  2000    2001  2002  2003  2004  2005  2006




                            87
         Chart 5a - Casualty rates by hour of day and day of week:
             All Severities : Children (0 -15 years): 2006

Average number per hour, per million population

1.6
            Weekday
1.4
            Weekend
1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0
   0  1  2  3  4  5   6  7  8   9  10  11  12   13  14  15  16  17  18  19  20  21  22  23
                              Hour of day




         Chart 5b - Casualty rates by hour of day and day of week:
           All Severities : Adults (16 years and over): 2006

Average number per hour, per million population

1.4
            Weekday
1.2
            Weekend

1.0


0.8


0.6


0.4


0.2


0.0
   0  1  2  3  4  5   6  7  8   9  10  11  12   13  14  15  16  17  18  19  20  21  22  23
                              Hour of Day




                           88
TABLES
1a Vehicle population, traffic and road length: 1996 - 2006

(a) Vehicles currently licensed by body type                                               Thousands

                   1996    1997   1998   1999     2000   2001   2002   2003   2004    2005     2006
___________________          ____    ____   ____   ____     ____   ____   ____   ____   ____    ____     ____
Motorcycles              739    752    814    889     954   1,010   1,070   1,135   1,191   1,206    1,224
Of which:
 Over not over
______________
     50cc             116    107    113    128     151    165    166    170    172    163     154
 50cc - 125cc             174    154    154    159     171    184    189    194    202    206     212
125cc - 500cc             198    197    200    201     198    195    204    210    212    209     206
over  500cc             251    293    346    400     432    465    511    560    605    628     651
        1
Cars and taxis           22,302   22,895  23,356  24,037  24,468   25,187  25,842  26,299  27,087  27,579    27,890
          2
Buses or coaches            64     64    65    68    71     71    72    73    73    74      77
Light good vehicles         2,168    2,225   2,272   2,337   2,378    2,457   2,537   2,647   2,816   2,937    3,053
Heavy good vehicles          387     385    384    395    409     422    431    425    427    416     419
Other motor vehicles          642     652    648    641    618     600    605    628    664    685     707
All motor vehicles         26,302   26,974  27,538  28,368  28,898   29,747  30,557  31,207  32,259  32,897    33,369




(b) Traffic by vehicle type                                              100 million vehicle kilometres

                   1996    1997   1998   1999     2000   2001   2002   2003   2004    2005     2006
___________________          ____    ____   ____   ____     ____   ____   ____   ____   ____    ____     ____
Pedal cycles              41     41    40    41    42     42    44    45    42     44     46
Motorcycles               38     40    41    45    46     48    51    56    52     54     52
        1
Cars and taxis            3,599    3,658   3,706   3,774   3,768    3,828   3,929   3,931   3,981   3,972    4,024
          2
Buses or coaches            50     52    52    53    52     52    52    54    52     52     54
Light goods gehicles          462     486    508    516    523     537    550    579    608    626     643
Heavy goods vehicles          262     269    277    281    282     281    283    285    294    290     291
All motor vehicles          4,411    4,503   4,585   4,670   4,671    4,744   4,865   4,904   4,986   4,994    5,064
All vehicles             4,452    4,544   4,624   4,710   4,712    4,787   4,909   4,948   5,028   5,038    5,110




(c) Traffic by road class                                               100 million vehicle kilometres

                   1996    1997   1998   1999     2000   2001   2002   2003   2004    2005     2006
___________________          ____    ____   ____   ____     ____   ____   ____   ____   ____    ____     ____
Motorways               783     821    857    878    884     908    926    930    966    970     992
A roads               2,052    2,083   2,107   2,134   2,124    2,158   2,193   2,218   2,248   2,238    2,269
      3
Minor roads             1,617    1,640   1,660   1,699   1,705    1,720   1,790   1,801   1,811   1,830    1,849
All roads              4,452    4,544   4,624   4,710   4,712    4,787   4,909   4,949   5,025   5,038    5,110




(d) Road length by road class and urban and rural roads                                           Kilometres

                   1996    1997   1998   1999     2000   2001   2002   2003   2004    2005     2006
___________________          ____    ____   ____   ____     ____   ____   ____   ____   ____    ____     ____
Motorways              3,298    3,378   3,421   3,449   3,467    3,476   3,478   3,478   3,523   3,519    3,555
A roads
Urban               11,002   11,031  11,027  11,106  11,114   11,132  11,141  11,127  11,138  11,107    11,143
Rural               35,190   35,326  35,369  35,463  35,493   35,522  35,532  35,525  35,530  35,550    35,612
All A roads            46,192   46,357  46,396  46,569  46,607   46,654  46,673  46,652  46,668  46,657    46,755
      3
Minor roads
Urban               128,975   129,338  129,702  130,068  130,432   130,802  131,169  131,556  129,917  130,186   137,279
Rural               208,518   208,820  209,123  209,429  209,731   210,037  210,343  210,656  207,565  207,646   210,761
All minor roads          337,493   338,158  338,825  339,497  340,163   340,839  341,512  342,212  337,482  337,832   348,040
All roads             386,983   387,893  388,640  389,515  390,237   390,969  391,663  392,342  387,674  388,008   398,350

1 Includes three wheelers
2 Excludes minibuses
3 B roads, C roads and unclassified surfaced roads.




                                       90
1b Road traffic by vehicle type and road class: 2005 - 2006 and 1994-98 average

                                                   100 million vehicle kilometres


                             Car     Bus    Light    Heavy        All
            Pedal              and     and    goods    goods      motor       All
2006           cycle   Motorcycle      taxi   coach   vehicle   vehicle    vehicles    vehicles
_______________    ______   __________     ______  ________  _________  _________    ________    ________

Motorway           ..      4.3      742     5.6     118     121       992       992

Urban A roads        7.0      9.7      677     12      94      30       822       829
Rural A roads        1.4      12      1,139     9.5     175     103      1,438      1,440
All A roads         8.4      22      1,817     22     268     133      2,261      2,269

All major roads       8.4      26     2,559     27     387     254      3,253      3,261
      1
Minor roads         38       26     1,465     27     256      37      1,811      1,849

All roads          46       52     4,024     54     643     291      5,064      5,110



                             Car     Bus    Light    Heavy        All
            Pedal              and     and    goods    goods      motor       All
2005           cycle   Motorcycle      taxi   coach   vehicle   vehicle    vehicles    vehicles
_______________    ______   __________     ______  ________  _________  _________    ________    ________

Motorway           ..      4.0      728     5.0     113     120       970       970

Urban A roads        5.5      10      674     12      92      30       817       822
Rural A roads        1.3      12     1,121     9.0     169     102      1,413      1,414
All A roads         6.8      22     1,795     21     261     132      2,230      2,236

All major roads       6.8      26     2,523     25     374     253      3,201      3,208

Minor roads1        37       28     1,449     27     252      38      1,793      1,830

All roads          44       54     3,972     52     626     290      4,994      5,038



                             Car     Bus    Light    Heavy        All
            Pedal              and     and    goods    goods      motor       All
1994 - 98 Average    cycle   Motorcycle      taxi   coach   vehicle   vehicle    vehicles    vehicles
_______________    ______   __________     ______  ________  _________  _________    ________    ________

Motorway           ..      3.2      590     5.4     81     102       781       781

Urban A roads        5.8      8.8      671     13      79      32       803       809
Rural A roads        2.0      9.4      985     8.6     131      95      1,230      1,232
All A roads         7.8      18      1,656     21     211     127      2,033      2,041

All major roads       7.8      21     2,246     27     291     229      2,815      2,822

Minor roads1        33       17     1,339     23     175      33      1,588      1,621

All roads          41       39     3,585     50     467     262      4,402      4,443


1 B roads, C roads and unclassified surfaced roads.




                                  91
2 Population, vehicle population, index of vehicle mileage, accidents and casualties: by road user type
 and severity: 1930 - 2006


                                             Casualties from road accidents
                                     _____________________________________________________________
                    Index of vehicle
                         1                                               All
                      traffic
               Motor    1949=100                     Killed               Injured  severities
                                                               ____ _____
             vehicles   _____________           __________________________________________
             currently
Year    Population   licensed   Motor   All   Accidents   Pedest-   Pedal   M'cycle
                                          cyclists2     2    3
       (millions)   (m'lns)   traffic traffic    ('000s)   rians                    All  ('000s)    ('000s)
                                                 users  Others
____    _________     _____   _____ _____     ________   ______   ______   ______  ______    ___   _____     _____

                                                                         185
                      ..     ..
1930       44.6     2.3                157    3,722    887   1,832    864   7,305    178
                                                                         228
                      ..     ..
1935       45.6     2.6                196    3,073   1,400   1,277    752   6,502    222
                                                                          ..
                      ..     ..     ..                                ..
1940       46.9     2.3                     4,724   1,363   1,270   1,252   8,609
                                                                         138
                      ..     ..     ..
1945       47.8     2.6                     2,602    918    553   1,183   5,256    133
                                                                         201
1950       49.2     4.4     114    104     167    2,251    805   1,129    827   5,012    196
                                                                         268
1955       49.6     6.5     166    136     217    2,287    708   1,362   1,169   5,526    262
                                                                         348
1960       51.0     9.4     242    177     272    2,708    679   1,743   1,840   6,970    341
                                                                         398
1965       52.9    12.9     350    242     299    3,105    543   1,244   3,060   7,952    390
                                                                         363
1970       54.1    15.0     431    292     267    2,925    373    761   3,440   7,499    356
                                                                         325
1975       54.7    17.5     499    337     246    2,344    278    838   2,906   6,366    319
                                                                         329
1980       54.8    19.2     584    394     252    1,941    302   1,163   2,604   5,953    323

                                                                         325
1981       54.8    19.4     595    402     248    1,874    310   1,131   2,531   5,846    319
                                                                         334
1982       54.8    19.8     611    414     256    1,869    294   1,090   2,681   5,937    328
                                                                         309
1983       54.8    20.2     620    420     243    1,914    323    963   2,245   5,445    303
                                                                         324
1984       55.0    20.8     652    441     253    1,868    345    967   2,419   5,599    319
                                                                         318
1985       55.1    21.2     666    450     246    1,789    286    796   2,294   5,165    312

                                                                         321
1986       55.3    21.7     700    472     248    1,841    271    762   2,508   5,385    316
                                                                         311
1987       55.4    22.2     754    508     239    1,703    280    723   2,419   5,125    306
                                                                         322
1988       55.6    23.3     809    544     247    1,753    227    670   2,402   5,052    317
                                                                         342
1989       55.8    24.2     874    588     261    1,706    294    683   2,690   5,373    336
                                                                         341
1990       56.0    24.7     884    594     258    1,694    256    659   2,608   5,217    336

    4                                                                     311
         56.2    24.5     886    595     236    1,496    242    548   2,282   4,568    307
1991
                                                                         311
1992       55.9    24.9     883    592     233    1,347    204    469   2,209   4,229    307
                                                                         306
1993       56.0    24.8     887    594     229    1,241    186    427   1,960   3,814    302
                                                                         315
1994       56.2    25.2     907    607     234    1,124    172    444   1,910   3,650    312
                                                                         311
1995       56.3    25.4     925    619     231    1,038    213    445   1,925   3,621    307

                                                                         321
1996       56.4    26.3     949    635     236    997    203    440   1,958   3,598    317
                                                                         328
1997       56.5    27.0     969    648     240    973    183    509   1,934   3,599    324
                                                                         325
1998       56.6    27.5     987    660     239    906    158    498   1,859   3,421    322
                                                                         320
1999       56.8    28.3    1,005    672     235    870    172    547   1,834   3,423    317
                                                                         320
2000       57.0    28.9    1,005    672     234    857    127    605   1,820   3,409    317

                                                                         313
2001       57.4    29.7    1,021    683     229    826    138    583   1,903   3,450    310
                                                                         303
2002       57.6    30.6    1,047    700     222    775    130    609   1,917   3,431    299
                                                                         291
2003       57.9    31.2    1,055    706     214    774    114    693   1,927   3,508    287
                                                                         281
2004       58.1    32.3    1,073    717     207    671    134    585   1,831   3,221    278
                                                                         271
2005       58.5    32.8    1,075    719     199    671    148    569   1,813   3,201    268

                                                                         258
2006       58.8    33.4    1,090    729     189    675    146    599   1,752   3,172    255


Note: Road accident and casualty data was first collect on a national level in 1926. That year there were 4,886 recorded deaths in some 124,000
    accidents. The highest record road death figure was 9,196 in 1941, the highest post WW2 fatality figure was 7,985 in 1966
1  Traffic estimates for 1995 onwards have been produced on a new, more accurate basis and are not directly comparable with earlier data.
2  Between 1937 and 1977 the figures excluded sidecar passengers and second riders of tandems
3  Includes cases where road user type was not reported
4  Population figures have been revised by ONS so there is a break in the series at this point




                                       92
3 Accidents and accident rates: by road class and severity1: 1994-98 average, 1999 - 2006

                                              Number of accidents/rate per 100 million vehicle kilometres

                 1994-98
                 average     1999     2000     2001     2002     2003     2004     2005     2006
                 ______     ____     ____     ____     ____     ____     ____     ____     ____

       2,3
Urban roads
A roads
Fatal                686      587     611      628     636     639      533      506      550
Fatal and serious         10,595     9,123    9,255     8,879    8,543    7,941     7,237     6,568     6,720
All severities          71,114    69,062    70,094    68,163    65,098    62,432    58,665    54,789    51,447
    Rate              88      84      85      83      79      76      70      67      62

Other roads4
Fatal                596      588     554      573     491     532      518      517      508
Fatal and serious        12,871    11,222    10,809    10,594    10,307    9,686     8,991     8,785     8,815
All severities          85,778    85,129    84,353    82,127    79,361    75,907    73,327    72,317    68,830
    Rate              84      79      78      75      70      66      64      63      60

All urban roads5
Fatal               1,283     1,175    1,165    1,201     1,127    1,171     1,051     1,023    1,058
Fatal and serious        23,466    20,345    20,064    19,473    18,850    17,627    16,228    15,353    15,535
All severities         156,892    154,191   154,447   150,290    144,459   138,339    131,992    127,106   120,277
    Rate              86      81      81      78      74      70      67      64      61

Rural roads2,3
A roads
Fatal               1,204     1,169    1,157     1,177    1,182    1,207     1,134     1,106     1,103
Fatal and serious         8,755     8,128    7,837     7,799    7,593    7,370     6,811     6,488     6,276
All severities          38,120    37,706    36,922    36,880    37,041    35,890    35,699    33,771    32,591
    Rate              31      29      28      28      27      26      25      24      23

       4
Other roads
Fatal                620      578     602      585     636     683      642      608      601
Fatal and serious         7,036     6,444    6,303     6,070    5,982    5,961     5,625     5,081     5,106
All severities          32,605    32,504    31,709    31,511    30,767    30,795    30,487    29,152    27,889
    Rate              55      52      51      51      47      47      46      43      40

         5
All rural roads
Fatal               1,825     1,747    1,759     1,762    1,818    1,890     1,776     1,714     1,704
Fatal and serious        15,791    14,572    14,140    13,869    13,575    13,331    12,436    11,569    11,382
All severities          70,725    70,210    68,631    68,391    67,808    66,685    66,186    62,923    60,480
    Rate              39      36      36      35      34      33      32      30      28

All roads5
Motorways
Fatal                 152     176     161      180     175     184      149      176      164
Fatal and serious          1,145    1,218    1,190     1,235    1,162    1,166     1,047     1,007      953
All severities           7,989    9,118    9,394     9,128    8,942    8,746     9,072     8,619     8,379
    Rate              10      10      11      10      10      9       9       9       8

A roads
Fatal               1,893     1,782    1,782    1,826     1,821    1,847     1,669     1,612     1,653
Fatal and serious        19,393    17,388    17,204    16,761    16,168    15,328    14,055    13,063    12,997
All severities         109,435    107,474   107,544   105,548    102,378    98,436    94,429    88,599    84,050
    Rate              54      50      51      49      47      44      42      40      37

Other roads4
Fatal               1,220     1,180    1,165    1,170     1,128    1,216     1,160     1,125     1,109
Fatal and serious        19,944    17,799    17,213    16,768    16,315    15,666    14,624    13,872    13,922
All severities         118,616    118,456   116,791   114,338    110,431   106,848    103,909    101,517    96,732
    Rate              73      70      69      66      62      59      57      55      52

Total5
Fatal               3,264     3,138    3,108    3,176     3,124    3,247     2,978     2,913    2,926
Fatal and serious        40,481    36,405    35,607    34,764    33,645    32,160    29,726    27,942    27,872
All severities         236,040    235,048   233,729   229,014    221,751   214,030    207,410    198,735   189,161
    Rate              53      50      50      48      45      43      41      39      37

1  Figures have been rounded to the nearest whole number
2  Excludes motorways.
3  See urban and rural definitions.
4  B roads, C roads and unclassified roads: excludes cases where road class was not reported
5  Includes cases where road class was not reported



                                    93
4 Accidents: by road class, speed limit and severity: 1994-98 average1, 1999 - 2006

                                                        Number of accidents

               1994-98
               average     1999    2000     2001     2002    2003   2004   2005    2006
                ______     ____    ____     ____     ____    ____   ____   ____    ____
Motorways
Fatal              152     176     161     180     175     184   149   176     164
Fatal and serious       1,145    1,218    1,190    1,235    1,162    1,166  1,047  1,007     953
All severities         7,989    9,118    9,394    9,128    8,942    8,746  9,072  8,619    8,379

A roads
20 mph
 Fatal               0      0      0      1      0     0    0     2      0
 Fatal and serious         6      4      11     14      11     9    17    20     23
 All severities          34      44      58     86      99     92   147    131     119

30 mph
Fatal              505     453     449     447     477     466   386   389     370
Fatal and serious       8,948    7,743    7,759    7,478    7,203    6,804  6,102  5,648    5,745
All severities        61,551    60,114    59,921   58,637    55,981   54,050  50,747  47,838   44,733

40 mph
Fatal              208     186     197     210     189     199   190   155     212
Fatal and serious       2,276    2,040    2,019    1,955    2,012    1,824  1,684  1,494    1,533
All severities        13,516    13,248    14,138   13,569    13,455   12,756  12,231  10,868   10,571

50 mph
Fatal               55      79      75     84      94     109   106    96     102
Fatal and serious        479     513     575     639     642     670   647   655     683
All severities         2,630    3,085    3,427    3,768    3,852    3,994  4,057  4,083    4,299

60 mph
Fatal              870     837     824     842     829     817   762   749     742
Fatal and serious       6,033    5,568    5,394    5,193    4,983    4,684  4,316  3,992    3,880
All severities        23,644    22,687    21,964   21,356    20,863   19,773  19,415  18,485   17,292

70 mph
Fatal              254     227     237     242     232     256   225   221     227
Fatal and serious       1,651    1,520    1,446    1,482    1,317    1,337  1,289  1,254    1,133
All severities         8,060    8,296    8,036    8,132    8,128    7,771  7,832  7,194    7,036

Other roads2
20 mph
Fatal               2      1      3      4      3     4    4     6     15
Fatal and serious         37      40      47     74      78     86    87    113     146
All severities          202     289     359     458     569    636   724    846     877

30 mph
Fatal              645     622     603     620     566     585   555   553     539
Fatal and serious       14,027    12,326    11,790   11,657    11,347   10,727  9,910  9,637    9,517
All severities        92,696    92,475    91,082   88,976    85,874   82,777  79,439  77,674   73,741

40 mph
Fatal               74      79      81     73      70     66   103    84     79
Fatal and serious        919     858     887     858     859     738   809   671     739
All severities         4,881    5,188    5,392    5,322    5,258    4,684  5,089  4,809    4,663

50 mph
Fatal               6      10      11     11      10     26    18    16     15
Fatal and serious         76      76     104     100     113    130   111    91     122
All severities          436     505     541     641     584    657   658    679     800

60 mph
Fatal              486     466     464     460     475     532   477   462     459
Fatal and serious       4,834    4,464    4,337    4,046    3,890    3,967  3,680  3,336    3,376
All severities        20,091    19,768    19,106   18,679    17,906   17,892  17,805  17,279   16,455

70 mph
Fatal               6      2      3      2      4     3    3     4      2
Fatal and serious         50      35      48     33      28     18    27    24     22
All severities          306     231     311     262     240    202   194    230     196


1 Figures have been rounded to the nearest whole number
2 B roads, C roads and unclassified roads: excludes cases where road class was not reported




                                     94
5a Male casualties: by built-up and non built-up roads, road class and severity: 1994–98 average 1, 1999 – 2006

                                                             Number of casualties

                 1994-98
                 average    1999    2000   2001      2002     2003     2004     2005    2006
                  ______    ____    ____   ____      ____     ____     ____     ____    ____
         2
Built-up roads
 A roads
  Killed               511     481    502    515      504     505      452     415     451
  KSI 3              7,985    7,091   7,144   7,072     7,010    6,569     5,868    5,504    5,577
  All severities         54,577    54,257   55,881  54,609    52,933    50,785    47,471    44,816   42,149

 B roads
  Killed               139     135    153    140      139     136      147     135     135
  KSI               2,392    2,049   2,244   2,072     2,132    1,967     1,938    1,715    1,779
  All severities         15,251    15,100   15,906  15,536    14,995    14,504    14,142    13,455   12,954

 Other roads
  Killed               367     379    357    386      354     354      363     342     349
  KSI               8,110    7,266   7,034   7,228     7,053    6,705     6,253    5,992    6,000
  All severities         54,300    54,911   54,653  54,237    52,660    50,234    48,340    47,840   45,707

 All built-up roads4
  Killed              1,018     995    1,012   1,041      997     995     962      892     935
  KSI               18,487   16,406   16,422  16,372    16,195    15,241    14,059    13,211   13,356
  All severities         124,128   124,268   126,440  124,382    120,588   115,523   109,953    106,111   100,810

Non-built-up roads2
 A roads
  Killed               992     943    972    993      975    1,005      918     942     924
  KSI               7,275    6,805   6,760   6,562     6,411    6,089     5,615    5,299    5,093
  All severities         31,393    31,065   30,613  30,538    29,961    28,694    28,471    27,483   25,996

 B roads
  Killed               192     182    189    225      205      242     206     203     186
  KSI               1,881    1,663   1,785   1,655     1,619     1,680    1,475    1,345    1,316
  All severities          7,675    7,497   7,371   7,142     7,121     7,109    6,913    6,578    6,162

 Other roads
  Killed               215     216    216    196      202     218      214     216     220
  KSI               2,392    2,186   2,139   2,007     1,925    1,946     1,791    1,675    1,706
  All severities         11,357    11,085   10,805  10,621     9,865    10,142     9,658    9,715    9,543

 All non built-up roads4
  Killed              1,398    1,341   1,377   1,414     1,382    1,465     1,338    1,361    1,330
  KSI               11,547    10,654   10,684  10,224     9,955    9,715     8,881    8,319    8,115
  All severities         50,425    49,647   48,789  48,301    46,947    45,945    45,042    43,776   41,701

All speed limits5
 Motorways
  Killed               129     159    144    159      178      167     133     163     136
  KSI               1,009    1,063   1,073   1,095     1,063     1,004     921     912     816
  All severities          7,349    8,477   9,030   8,484     8,171     8,024    8,178    7,910    7,701

 A roads
  Killed              1,503    1,424   1,474   1,508     1,479    1,510     1,370    1,357    1,375
  KSI               15,260    13,896   13,904  13,634    13,421    12,658    11,483    10,803   10,670
  All severities         85,971    85,322   86,494  85,147    82,894    79,479    75,942    72,299   68,145

 B roads
  Killed               331     317    342    365      344     378      353     338     321
  KSI               4,273    3,712   4,029   3,727     3,751    3,647     3,413    3,060    3,095
  All severities         22,926    22,597   23,277  22,678    22,116    21,613    21,055    20,033   19,116

 Other roads
  Killed               583     595    573    582      556     572      577     558     569
  KSI               10,503    9,452   9,173   9,235     8,978    8,651     8,044    7,667    7,706
  All severities         65,661    65,996   65,458  64,858    62,525    60,376    57,998    57,555   55,250

Total5
  Killed              2,547    2,495    2,533   2,614     2,557    2,627    2,433     2,416    2,401
  KSI               31,045   28,123   28,179  27,691    27,213    25,960    23,861    22,442   22,287
  All severities         181,906   182,392   184,259  181,167    175,706   169,492   163,173    157,797   150,212

1 Figures have been rounded to the nearest whole number            4 Includes cases where road class was not reported
2 Excludes motorways.                             5 Includes cases where speed limit was not reported.
3 Killed or seriously injured.




                                  95
                                                                   1
5b Female casualties: by built-up and non built-up roads, road class and severity: 1994–98 average , 1999 – 2006
                                                               Number of casualties

               1994-98
               average    1999      2000   2001      2002     2003     2004     2005     2006
               ______    ____      ____   ____      ____     ____     ____     ____     ____
Built-up roads 2
A roads
  Killed            237     183       197    170      202      198      152      165     168
  KSI 3            4,550    3,736      3,657   3,357     3,282     3,004     2,701     2,381    2,407
  All severities       43,086   41,726      42,151  40,720     38,936    37,233    35,121    32,922    31,159

 B roads
  Killed             72     60        63    55       47      58      53      48      47
  KSI             1,376    1,188      1,021    996      982      939      850      765     748
  All severities       12,419   12,182      12,290  11,951     11,438    11,006    10,590    10,206    9,754

 Other roads
  Killed            173     159       142    140      122      127      134      150     131
  KSI             4,473    3,860      3,548   3,395     3,222     2,930     2,709     2,707    2,705
  All severities       40,645   41,449      40,671  38,711     37,762    35,647    34,595    34,242    32,893

 All built-up roads 4
  Killed            483     402       402    365      371      383      339      363     346
  KSI            10,399    8,784      8,226   7,748     7,486     6,873     6,260     5,853    5,860
  All severities       96,150   95,357      95,112  91,382     88,136    83,886    80,306    77,370    73,806

Non built-up roads 2
A roads
 Killed             365     362       315    322      322      316      302      275     272
 KSI             3,723    3,271      2,960   2,990     2,674     2,481     2,413     2,259    2,117
 All severities       23,475   23,231      22,156  22,216     21,079    20,098    20,077    19,022    18,256

 B roads
  Killed             72      68       58    56       67      70      59       56     48
  KSI              913     833       736    681      699      665      633      544     542
  All severities       5,168    5,133      4,927   4,720     4,652     4,583     4,507     4,271    4,116

 Other roads
  Killed             66      51       56    43       66      62      57       50     54
  KSI             1,064     999       936    887      852      784      797      697     688
  All severities       7,575    7,622      7,228   7,065     6,645     6,430     6,555     6,557    6,251

 All non built-up roads 4
  Killed            502     481       429    421      455      448      418      381     374
  KSI             5,699    5,103      4,632   4,558     4,225     3,930     3,843     3,500    3,347
  All severities       36,218   35,986      34,311  34,001     32,376    31,111    31,139    29,850    28,623

All speed limits 5
 Motorways
  Killed            44      43       45    44       44      50      31       41     51
  KSI             505     524       517    510      438      447      379      355     349
  All severities       5,529    6,384      6,380   6,248     6,071     6,004     6,128     5,867    5,682

 A roads
  Killed            602     545       512    492      524      514      454      440     440
  KSI             8,272    7,007      6,617   6,347     5,956     5,485     5,114     4,640    4,524
  All severities       66,562   64,957      64,307  62,936     60,015    57,331    55,198    51,944    49,415

 B roads
  Killed            145     128       121    111      114      128      112      104      95
  KSI             2,289    2,021      1,757   1,677     1,681     1,604     1,483     1,309    1,290
  All severities       17,587   17,315      17,217  16,671     16,090    15,589    15,097    14,477    13,870

 Other roads
  Killed            239     210       198    183      188      189      191      200     185
  KSI             5,537    4,859      4,484   4,282     4,074     3,714     3,506     3,404    3,393
  All severities       48,222   49,071      47,899  45,776     44,407    42,077    41,150    40,799    39,144

Total5
  Killed           1,030     926      876     830      870      881      788      785     771
  KSI            16,603   14,411    13,375    12,816     12,149    11,250    10,482     9,708    9,556
  All severities      137,900   137,727    135,803   131,631    126,583    121,001    117,573    113,087   108,111

1 Figures have been rounded to the nearest whole number.           4 Includes cases where road class was not reported.
2 Excludes motorways.                             5 Includes cases where speed limit was not reported.
3 Killed or seriously injured.




                                  96
5c All casualties: by built-up and non built-up roads, road class and severity: 1994–98 average 1, 1999 – 2006

                                                             Number of casualties

                 1994-98
                 average    1999    2000   2001      2002     2003     2004     2005    2006
                  ______    ____    ____   ____      ____     ____     ____     ____    ____
       2
Built-up roads
 A roads
  Killed               748     665    699    687      707     703      604     580     619
  KSI 3              12,535    10,830   10,802  10,447    10,304    9,573     8,571    7,886    7,985
  All severities         97,700    96,036   98,069  95,461    91,963    88,052    82,608    77,765   73,324

 B roads
  Killed               211     195    216    196      186     194      200     183     182
  KSI               3,769    3,237   3,267   3,071     3,117    2,906     2,789    2,480    2,527
  All severities         27,679    27,297   28,213  27,523    26,465    25,517    24,743    23,673   22,715

 Other roads
  Killed               541     538    499    526      476     481      497     492     480
  KSI               12,584    11,128   10,588  10,638    10,285    9,639     8,962    8,700    8,705
  All severities         94,984    96,426   95,449  93,129    90,507    85,930    82,967    82,139   78,624

 All built-up roads4
  Killed              1,501    1,398    1,414   1,409     1,369    1,378    1,301     1,255    1,281
  KSI               28,888   25,195   24,657  24,156    23,706    22,118    20,322    19,066   19,217
  All severities         220,363   219,759   221,731  216,113    208,935   199,499   190,318    183,577   174,663

Non built-up roads2
 A roads
  Killed              1,357    1,306   1,287   1,318     1,298    1,321     1,220    1,217    1,196
  KSI               10,999    10,081   9,720   9,563     9,093    8,570     8,029    7,561    7,211
  All severities         54,882    54,331   52,791  52,832    51,097    48,804    48,567    46,526   44,272

 B roads
  Killed               264     250    247    281      272     312      265     259     234
  KSI               2,794    2,497   2,521   2,337     2,322    2,346     2,109    1,889    1,858
  All severities         12,846    12,636   12,299  11,878    11,781    11,697    11,424    10,853   10,283

 Other roads
  Killed               280     267    272    239      268     280      271     266     274
  KSI               3,456    3,185   3,076   2,897     2,779    2,730     2,590    2,372    2,394
  All severities         18,937    18,720   18,044  17,725    16,522    16,578    16,223    16,279   15,798

 All non built-up roads4
  Killed              1,901    1,823   1,806   1,838     1,838    1,913     1,756    1,742    1,704
  KSI               17,250    15,763   15,317  14,797    14,194    13,646    12,728    11,822   11,463
  All severities         86,666    85,687   83,134  82,435    79,400    77,079    76,214    73,658   70,353

All speed limits5
 Motorways
  Killed               173     202    189    203      224     217      164     204     187
  KSI               1,516    1,587   1,590   1,607     1,507    1,451     1,301    1,267    1,165
  All severities         12,891    14,864   15,418  14,761    14,270    14,029    14,308    13,782   13,388

 A roads
  Killed              2,106    1,971    1,986   2,005     2,005    2,024    1,824     1,797    1,815
  KSI               23,535   20,911   20,522  20,010    19,397    18,143    16,600    15,447   15,196
  All severities         152,584   150,367   150,860  148,293    143,060   136,856   131,175    124,291   117,596

 B roads
  Killed               476     445    463    477      458     506      465     442     416
  KSI               6,563    5,734   5,788   5,408     5,439    5,252     4,898    4,369    4,385
  All severities         40,526    39,933   40,512  39,401    38,246    37,214    36,167    34,526   32,998

 Other roads
  Killed               823     805     771    765      744     761      768     758     754
  KSI               16,042   14,313   13,664  13,535    13,064    12,369    11,552    11,072   11,099
  All severities         113,927   115,146   113,493  110,854    107,029   102,508    99,190    98,418   94,422

Total5
  Killed              3,578    3,423    3,409   3,450     3,431    3,508    3,221     3,201    3,172
  KSI               47,656   42,545   41,564  40,560    39,407    37,215    34,351    32,155   31,845
  All severities         319,928   320,310   320,283  313,309    302,605   290,607   280,840    271,017   258,404

1 Figures have been rounded to the nearest whole number            4 Includes cases where road class was not reported
2 Excludes motorways.                             5 Includes cases where speed limit was not reported.
3 Killed or seriously injured.




                                  97
6a Male casualties: by road user type and severity: 1994–98 average1, 1999 – 2006
                                                              Number of casualties

             1994-98
             average     1999      2000     2001     2002     2003     2004     2005     2006
             _______     ____      ____     ____     ____     ____     ____     ____     ____

Pedestrians
               631     579     559       565      500     505     450     421      452
Killed
KSI 2           7,063    5,970    5,784      5,682     5,400    4,971    4,658    4,310     4,319
All severities      27,163    24,929    24,604      23,745    22,873    21,472    20,312    19,338    17,824

Pedal cyclists
Killed            154     148     104       120      109      89     107     131      122
KSI            3,019    2,583    2,250      2,182     2,009    2,005    1,923    1,942     2,020
All severities      19,437    18,235    16,318      15,342    13,750    13,672    13,406    13,300    13,063

Motorcycle
Riders
Killed            422     502     557       537      557     642     544     537      558
KSI            5,590    6,074    6,496      6,474     6,618    6,775    5,889    5,822     5,804
All severities      20,341    22,598    24,388      24,773    24,401    24,523    22,214    21,574    20,284

Passengers
Killed            15      6       12       13      16      8      15      13        13
KSI             202     182      209      177      217     184     179     178       160
All severities        704     665      682      705      729     739     599     591       533

Car
Drivers
Killed            873     831     863       909      907     898     855     873      840
KSI            9,518    8,441    8,572      8,356     8,222    7,591    7,035    6,529     6,349
All severities      71,669    73,247    75,045      74,457    72,969    69,868    68,814    67,442    64,276

Passengers
Killed            323     304     302       335      314     347     319     321      298
KSI            3,807    3,233    3,221      3,251     3,183    3,017    2,853    2,490     2,445
All severities      28,957    28,682    28,774      28,063    27,472    26,215    25,040    23,830    23,269

Bus or coach
Drivers
Killed             1      0       1       4       2      1      3      0        2
KSI              66      59       48       51      48      39      37      25        37
All severities        743     832      962      908      804     798     746     737       654

Passengers3
Killed             7      5      9         5      10      7      10       5      8
KSI              194     141     143        147     150     128     135      111     103
All severities       2,500    2,642    2,524       2,635    2,375    2,342    2,398     2,109    1,895

Light goods vehicle
Drivers
 Killed            46     41      50        43      51      47      47      45      37
 KSI             682     570     575        574     548     546     470      410     405
 All severities       4,912    4,744    4,888       4,933    4,845    4,787    4,386     4,260    4,219

Passengers
Killed             13     19      10        16      13      17      14       6      12
KSI              200     178     153        159     150     148     113      122     109
All severities       1,374    1,322    1,252       1,433    1,273    1,260    1,131     1,097    1,008

Heavy goods vehicle
Drivers
Killed             46     44      42        47      51      42      40      47      36
KSI              492     462     476        429     430     361     354      341     327
All severities       2,808    2,926    2,981       2,792    2,597    2,546    2,410     2,395    2,084

Passengers
Killed             5      4       9       6      10      2      5      5        3
KSI              67      59       76       59      67      51      37      32        43
All severities        380     394      444      426      379     350     326     287       292

All road users4
               2,547    2,495    2,533       2,614    2,557    2,627    2,433     2,416    2,401
Killed
KSI            31,045    28,123    28,179      27,691    27,213    25,960    23,861    22,442    22,287
All severities      181,906   182,392   184,259     181,167   175,706    169,492   163,173   157,797    150,212

1 Figures have been rounded to the nearest whole number     3 Includes boarding and alighting.
2 Killed or seriously injured.                  4 Includes other road users and cases where road user type was not reported




                                      98
6b Female casualties: by road user type and severity: 1994–98 average1, 1999 – 2006
                                                              Number of casualties

             1994-98
             average     1999      2000     2001     2002     2003     2004     2005     2006
             _______     ____      ____     ____     ____     ____     ____     ____     ____

Pedestrians
Killed            376     290     298       261      275     269     221     250      223
KSI 2           4,605    3,853    3,714      3,368     3,224    2,961    2,818    2,818     2,731
All severities      19,348    17,914    17,378      16,739    15,847    14,905    14,555    13,913    13,151

Pedal cyclists
Killed             32     24      23        18      21      25      27      17      24
KSI              713     593     518        495     439     405     385      416     422
All severities       4,930    4,577    4,275       3,740    3,345    3,350    3,238     3,248    3,127

Motorcycle
Riders
Killed             12     23      16        17      21      23      13      12      18
KSI              398     368     388        405     403     430     365      320     347
All severities       1,906    1,910    2,117       2,333    2,205    2,203    1,979     1,904    1,857

Passengers
Killed             18     16      20        15      13      20      13      7        10
KSI              285     283     280       243      252     263     213     188       173
All severities       1,067    1,010    1,016       965      993     938     840     749       650

Car
Drivers
Killed            255     251     224       253      238     271     251     236      226
KSI            5,114    4,549    4,122      4,189     3,796    3,448    3,366    2,968     2,956
All severities      56,267    58,776    58,853      57,729    55,977    53,898    53,207    52,098    50,704

Passengers
Killed            312     301     276       247      286     253     246     245      248
KSI            4,812    4,140    3,797      3,598     3,504    3,232    2,887    2,628     2,504
All severities      46,347    44,956    44,027      42,232    40,835    38,315    36,746    34,857    32,694

Bus or coach
Drivers
Killed             0      0       0        0      0      0      0       0        0
KSI              5      8       3       13      5      5      8       6        3
All severities        61      76       62       84      67      64      76      81       70

Passengers3
Killed             11      5      5         5      7      3      7       4      9
KSI              449     401     384        351     346     328     307      221     283
All severities       6,278    6,672    6,509       6,244    5,730    5,844    5,587     4,984    4,631

Light goods vehicle
Drivers
 Killed            2      1       5       3       3      3      0      1        2
 KSI             54      35       34       33      31      25      16      15        23
 All severities       466     437      354      400      356     337     254     285       291

Passengers
Killed             4      4       1       2       3      5      1      2        1
KSI              79      83       51       45      51      46      32      40        26
All severities        671     618      510      531      523     513     392     406       392

Heavy goods vehicle
Drivers
Killed             0      1       0        0      0      0      1       1        0
KSI              5      7       5        3      8      6      3       6        3
All severities        46      54       55       53      58      48      41      46       46

Passengers
Killed             1      3       4       1       2      0      1      2        0
KSI              15      12       14       7      18      11      12      16        10
All severities        103     110      115      110      141     116     106     115       106

All road users4
 Killed          1,030     926     876       830     870      881     788     785      771
 KSI           16,603    14,411    13,375      12,816    12,149    11,250    10,482    9,708     9,556
 All severities     137,900   137,727   135,803     131,631   126,583    121,001   117,573   113,087    108,111

1 Figures have been rounded to the nearest whole number     3 Includes boarding and alighting.
2 Killed or seriously injured.                  4 Includes other road users and cases where road user type was not reported




                                      99
6c All casualties: by road user type and severity: 1994–98 average1, 1999 – 2006
                                                              Number of casualties

             1994-98
             average     1999      2000     2001     2002     2003     2004     2005     2006
             _______     ____      ____     ____     ____     ____     ____     ____     ____

Pedestrians
Killed           1,008     870     857       826      775     774     671     671      675
KSI 2           11,669    9,825    9,498      9,064     8,631    7,933    7,478    7,129     7,051
All severities      46,543    42,888    42,033      40,577    38,784    36,405    34,881    33,281    30,982

Pedal cyclists
Killed            186     172     127       138      130     114     134     148      146
KSI            3,732    3,176    2,770      2,678     2,450    2,411    2,308    2,360     2,442
All severities      24,385    22,840    20,612      19,114    17,107    17,033    16,648    16,561    16,196

Motorcycle
Riders
Killed            434     525     573       554      580     665     557     549      576
KSI            5,988    6,443    6,885      6,883     7,030    7,205    6,255    6,142     6,151
All severities      22,251    24,516    26,513      27,135    26,628    26,733    24,201    23,484    22,143

Passengers
Killed             33     22      32        29      29      28      28      20      23
KSI              487     465     489        422     470     447     393      366     333
All severities       1,772    1,676    1,699       1,675    1,725    1,678    1,440     1,340    1,183

Car
Drivers
Killed           1,128    1,082    1,087      1,164    1,146     1,169    1,106    1,109     1,066
KSI            14,634    12,995    12,695      12,555    12,030    11,040    10,402    9,497     9,305
All severities      127,958   132,067   133,928     132,318   129,024    123,786   122,045   119,567    115,003

Passengers
Killed            634     605     578       585      601     600     565     566      546
KSI            8,619    7,373    7,024      6,869     6,698    6,251    5,742    5,120     4,949
All severities      75,329    73,668    72,871      70,484    68,401    64,556    61,813    58,735    55,997

Bus or coach
Drivers
Killed             1      0      1        4       2      1      3      0        2
KSI              71      67      51        64      53      44      45      31        40
All severities        804     908    1,024       992      873     862     822     818       724

Passengers3
Killed             19     11      14        10      17      10      17       9      17
KSI              645     544     527        498     498     456     443      332     386
All severities       8,794    9,344    9,064       8,892    8,132    8,206    7,998     7,102    6,529

Light goods vehicle
Drivers
 Killed            48     42      55        46      54      50      47      46      39
 KSI             735     606     609        607     579     571     486      425     429
 All severities       5,378    5,182    5,245       5,336    5,206    5,124    4,641     4,545    4,511

Passengers
Killed             17     23      11        18      16      22      15       8      13
KSI              279     261     204        204     201     194     145      162     135
All severities       2,046    1,942    1,762       1,968    1,801    1,773    1,525     1,503    1,403

Heavy goods vehicle
Drivers
Killed             46     45      42        47      51      42      41      48      36
KSI              497     469     481        434     438     367     357      347     330
All severities       2,855    2,980    3,038       2,850    2,657    2,594    2,451     2,441    2,132

Passengers
Killed             7      7       13       7      12      2      6      7        3
KSI              82      71       90       66      86      62      49      48        53
All severities        483     504      559      538      521     467     432     402       398

All road users4
 Killed          3,578    3,423    3,409      3,450    3,431     3,508    3,221    3,201     3,172
 KSI           47,656    42,545    41,564      40,560    39,407    37,215    34,351    32,155    31,845
 All severities     319,928   320,310   320,283     313,309   302,605    290,607   280,840   271,017    258,404

1 Figures have been rounded to the nearest whole number     3 Includes boarding and alighting.
2 Killed or seriously injured.                  4 Includes other road users and cases where road user type was not reported




                                     100
7a Male casualties: killed or seriously injured: by road user type and age: 1994-98 average1, 1999 - 2006
                                                          Number of casualties

                    1994-98
                    average     1999    2000    2001    2002  2003  2004    2005    2006
                    _______     ____    ____    ____    ____  ____  ____    ____    ____
             2
Pedestrians                 374     309     254     219     214   190   170    156     158
          0 to 4
          5 to 7         571     471     404     383     321   288   253    207     207
          8 to 11         875     731     694     722     597   503   456    419     357
          12 to 15        825     690     704     720     710   585   608    519     553
          16 to 19        513     471     424     476     443   435   391    410     385
          20 to 24        523     413     441     446     468   445   384    396     388
          25 to 59       2,116    1,873    1,848    1,716    1,790  1,715  1,612   1,438    1,536
          60 to 64        207     166     177     187     127   145   113    104     121
          65 to 69        188     143     128     150     115   110   107    108     114
          70 to 74        228     151     162     158     140   122   131    133     108
          75 to 79        207     194     182     170     157   138   122    123     107
          80 and over       328     266     261     234     219   215   221    201     202
          All age groups3    7,063    5,970    5,784    5,682    5,400  4,971  4,658   4,310    4,319


          0 to 42
Pedal cyclists                17     18      8      7     6   12    6     9      6
          5 to 7         123     114     68      55     55   43   40    39     38
          8 to 11         304     233     196     171     157   178   125    134     119
          12 to 15        489     405     361     338     289   276   323    266     262
          16 to 19        304     236     165     199     156   157   144    144     163
          20 to 24        263     193     165     155     138   143   141    145     153
          25 to 59       1,245    1,143    1,077    1,033     995   980   942   1,002    1,057
          60 and over       240     201     165     192     169   191   173    170     189
          All age groups3    3,019    2,583    2,250    2,182    2,009  2,005  1,923   1,942    2,020


Motorcycle riders  Under 16         13     14     16     18     20   19   25     39     28
50cc and under   16           100     144     183     215     253   248   300    299     269
          17            39     53     80     85     117   110   105    105     123
          18            13     27     28     32     34   39   39     40     34
          19            7     14     26     24     27   23   20     23     28
          20 to 24         33     50     40     44     64   45   43     45     46
          25 to 59        110     84     118     138     126   138   112    108     121
          60 and over       37     24     18     13     14   20   12     9      9
          All age groups3     355     415     519     575     660   654   664    671     665


Motorcycle riders  Under 16         39     39     50      51     50   55   46    44     31
over 50cc      16            77     50     56      62     54   78   77    68     50
          17           215     192     208     223     203   265   236    256     210
          18           175     169     206     220     202   216   193    172     185
          19           150     138     170     156     169   181   162    171     174
          20 to 24        857     663     679     672     752   716   651    668     644
          25 to 59       3,526    4,203    4,372    4,278    4,309  4,341  3,632   3,557    3,574
          60 and over       120     122     140     120     126   175   161    142     194
          All age groups3    5,234    5,659    5,977    5,899    5,958  6,121  5,225   5,151    5,139


Car drivers     Under 17         58     42     60      63     66   53   57    41     36
          17           281     190     234     200     204   202   187    209     221
          18           453     388     373     361     372   364   316    332     346
          19           393     401     390     340     355   352   327    328     303
          20 to 24       1,640    1,311    1,353    1,405    1,402  1,309  1,241   1,160    1,133
          25 to 29       1,332    1,128    1,043    1,009    1,005   896   820    748     736
          30 to 39       1,852    1,690    1,804    1,771    1,663  1,497  1,343   1,217    1,122
          40 to 59       2,082    1,948    1,977    1,891    1,942  1,763  1,672   1,502    1,490
          60 to 69        613     557     569     533     468   456   418    397     407
          70 to 79        479     471     435     453     398   377   336    302     310
          80 and over       229     187     207     217     235   213   212    210     183
          All age groups3    9,518    8,441    8,572    8,356    8,222  7,591  7,035   6,529    6,349


Car passengers   Under 17        793     610     568     606     600   554   517    401     396
          17           296     233     226     244     217   213   192    240     202
          18           295     257     267     253     257   240   239    201     236
          19           242     244     234     215     210   205   218    161     175
          20 to 24        755     583     645     673     721   666   647    564     506
          25 to 29        391     324     315     334     314   279   249    234     241
          30 to 39        403     374     361     373     333   329   300    245     226
          40 to 59        333     309     306     270     275   249   233    206     235
          60 to 69        103     79     84      71     73   70   66    65     68
          70 to 79         79     80     71      62     63   68   53    54     73
          80 and over       44     48     50      46     32   45   37    36     34
          All age groups3    3,807    3,233    3,221    3,251    3,183  3,017  2,853   2,490    2,445

1 Figures have been rounded to the nearest whole number
2 In some cases age 0 may have been coded where the age of the casualty was not reported
3 Includes cases where age was not reported.




                                    101
7b Female casualties: killed or seriously injured: by road user type and age: 1994-98 average1, 1999 - 2006
                                                          Number of casualties

                    1994-98
                    average     1999    2000    2001    2002  2003  2004    2005    2006
                    _______     ____    ____    ____    ____  ____  ____    ____    ____
             2
Pedestrians                 197     146     128     97     107   81   80     91     81
          0 to 4
          5 to 7         260     206     184     161     145   104   109    121     101
          8 to 11         475     434     380     350     290   250   208    218     200
          12 to 15        590     470     478     490     443   380   455    403     368
          16 to 19        300     240     232     229     224   231   211    241     227
          20 to 24        244     201     225     189     207   197   185    181     168
          25 to 59       1,020     943     914     829     809   790   742    752     751
          60 to 64        164     122     130      95     130   105   94    97     105
          65 to 69        191     142     138     133     112   119   89    93     92
          70 to 74        263     216     206     149     139   156   135    111     112
          75 to 79        310     258     232     204     195   174   151    167     152
          80 and over       528     421     412     379     366   325   316    291     326
          All age groups3    4,605    3,853    3,714    3,368    3,224  2,961  2,818   2,818    2,731


          0 to 42
Pedal cyclists                1      3      1      1     2    1    1     1      0
          5 to 7          23     23     13     11     10   10   13     14     10
          8 to 11         74     69     58     41     36   38   27     29     40
          12 to 15         98     85     53     50     37   37   42     35     28
          16 to 19         58     45     39     30     22   23   25     30     24
          20 to 24         75     51     38     43     32   42   27     37     29
          25 to 59        299     246     260     246     238   196   197    205     233
          60 and over       72     57     45     53     51   44   48     54     50
          All age groups3     713     593     518     495     439   405   385    416     422


Motorcycle riders  Under 16         1      1      1      0      3    4    1     1      2
50cc and under   16            9      9     17     16     21   14   13     23     16
          17            7      4      8     14     11    8   14     9     16
          18            4      7      3      8      6    4    4     5      3
          19            3      2      6      7      3    3    6     4      0
          20 to 24         12     12     16      7     19   13   12     8      7
          25 to 59         65     44     53     59     46   49   41     37     35
          60 and over       20      9      9      8     14   12    7     4      2
          All age groups3     122     91     116     119     124   108   102     92     83


Motorcycle riders  Under 16         2      0      2      0      3    1    0     0      1
over 50cc      16            4      1      1      4      5    3    7     6      2
          17            9      7      8      9     10   11    6     8      6
          18            8     11     13     12      8    6    6     3     10
          19            11     10     14      3      6    6   12     5      6
          20 to 24         62     34     38     37     36   40   44     33     34
          25 to 59        170     205     189     210     205   244   183    164     196
          60 and over        7      8      5      5      4    7    5     5      6
          All age groups3     276     277     272     286     279   322   263    228     264


Car drivers     Under 17         3      7      4      6      4    2    2     4      3
          17            85     46     40      51     39   57   36    47     40
          18           174     158     113     114     96   119   117    122     116
          19           161     165     125     131     116   98   135    107     125
          20 to 24        782     554     527     531     557   491   477    432     413
          25 to 29        730     545     515     472     431   438   376    317     321
          30 to 39       1,140    1,067     955    1,000     824   682   692    555     536
          40 to 59       1,356    1,356    1,224    1,255    1,106   978   979    863     862
          60 to 69        299     275     264     262     254   248   244    224     248
          70 to 79        227     216     214     213     220   208   173    178     167
          80 and over       96     99     94     102     96   90   98    88     98
          All age groups3    5,114    4,549    4,122    4,189    3,796  3,448  3,366   2,968    2,956


Car passengers   Under 17        840     696     673     598     617   562   474    400     435
          17           215     184     140     165     168   191   155    140     137
          18           204     180     145     170     147   154   137    121     136
          19           140     130     132     108     140   123   116    102     106
          20 to 24        534     382     394     411     429   352   352    313     295
          25 to 29        396     318     264     242     244   176   170    169     179
          30 to 39        510     437     411     381     320   308   271    233     235
          40 to 59        812     724     636     585     598   519   470    454     383
          60 to 69        454     382     359     318     264   267   247    220     198
          70 to 79        403     394     364     346     311   277   246    234     204
          80 and over       209     199     194     167     180   184   174    165     146
          All age groups3    4,812    4,140    3,797    3,598    3,504  3,232  2,887   2,628    2,504

1 Figures have been rounded to the nearest whole number
2 In some cases age 0 may have been coded where the age of the casualty was not reported
3 Includes cases where age was not reported.




                                    102
7c All casualties: killed or seriously injured: by road user type and age: 1994-98 average1, 1999 - 2006
                                                           Number of casualties

                    1994-98
                    average     1999    2000    2001     2002   2003   2004    2005    2006
                    _______     ____    ____    ____     ____   ____   ____    ____    ____
             2
Pedestrians                 571     455     382     316     321   271   250    247     239
          0 to 4
          5 to 7         831     677     588     545     466   392   362    328     308
          8 to 11        1,350    1,165    1,074    1,073     888   753   664    637     557
          12 to 15       1,415    1,160    1,182    1,210    1,153   965  1,063    922     921
          16 to 19        813     711     656     705     668   666   603    651     612
          20 to 24        767     614     666     635     675   642   569    577     556
          25 to 59       3,136    2,817    2,762    2,546    2,600  2,505  2,354   2,191    2,287
          60 to 64        370     288     307     282     257   250   207    201     226
          65 to 69        379     285     266     283     227   229   196    201     206
          70 to 74        490     367     368     307     279   278   266    244     220
          75 to 79        517     452     414     374     352   312   273    290     259
          80 and over       856     687     673     613     586   540   537    492     528
          All age groups3   11,669    9,825    9,498    9,064    8,631  7,933  7,478   7,129    7,051


          0 to 42
Pedal cyclists                19     21      9      8      8    13    7     10      6
          5 to 7         146     137     81      66      66    53    53    53     48
          8 to 11         377     302     254     212     193   216   152    163     159
          12 to 15        587     490     414     388     327   313   365    301     290
          16 to 19        362     281     204     229     178   180   169    174     187
          20 to 24        338     244     203     198     170   185   168    182     182
          25 to 59       1,545    1,389    1,337    1,279    1,233  1,176  1,139   1,207    1,290
          60 and over       313     258     210     245     220   235   221    224     239
          All age groups3    3,732    3,176    2,770    2,678    2,450  2,411  2,308   2,360    2,442


Motorcycle riders  Under 16         14     15     17     18      23    23    26     40     30
50cc and under   16           109     153     200     232     274   262   313    322     285
          17            46     57     88     99     128   118   119    114     139
          18            17     34     31     40      40    43    43     45     37
          19            10     16     32     31      30    26    26     27     28
          20 to 24         46     62     56     51      83    58    55     53     53
          25 to 59        174     128     171     197     172   187   153    145     156
          60 and over       57     33     27     21      28    32    19     13     11
          All age groups3     477     506     635     695     784   762   766    763     748


Motorcycle riders  Under 16         41     39     52      51      53    56    46    44     32
over 50cc      16            81     51     57      66      59    81    84    74     52
          17           224     199     216     232     213   276   242    264     216
          18           183     180     219     232     211   222   199    175     195
          19           161     148     184     159     175   187   174    176     180
          20 to 24        918     697     717     709     792   756   695    701     678
          25 to 59       3,697    4,409    4,561    4,488    4,516  4,585  3,815   3,721    3,770
          60 and over       127     130     145     125     130   182   166    147     200
          All age groups3    5,511    5,937    6,250    6,188    6,246  6,443  5,489   5,379    5,403


Car drivers     Under 17         61     49     64     69      70    55    59    45     39
          17           365     236     274     251      243   259   223    256     261
          18           627     546     486     475      468   483   433    454     462
          19           554     566     515     471      471   450   462    435     428
          20 to 24       2,421    1,865    1,880    1,938     1,962  1,800  1,718   1,592    1,546
          25 to 29       2,062    1,673    1,558    1,481     1,437  1,334  1,196   1,065    1,057
          30 to 39       2,993    2,758    2,759    2,771     2,488  2,179  2,035   1,772    1,658
          40 to 59       3,438    3,304    3,201    3,147     3,050  2,741  2,652   2,365    2,352
          60 to 69        912     832     833     795      722   704   662    621     655
          70 to 79        706     687     649     666      618   585   509    480     477
          80 and over       325     286     301     319      331   303   310    298     281
          All age groups3   14,634   12,995   12,695   12,555    12,030  11,040  10,402   9,497    9,305


Car passengers   Under 17       1,633    1,306    1,241    1,204    1,217  1,117   991    802     831
          17           511     417     366     409     385   404   347    380     339
          18           498     437     412     423     404   394   376    322     372
          19           382     374     366     324     351   328   334    263     281
          20 to 24       1,288     965    1,039    1,087    1,150  1,018   999    877     801
          25 to 29        788     642     579     576     559   455   419    403     420
          30 to 39        913     811     772     755     653   637   572    478     461
          40 to 59       1,145    1,033     942     855     874   768   703    660     618
          60 to 69        556     461     443     389     337   337   313    285     266
          70 to 79        482     474     435     409     374   345   299    288     277
          80 and over       252     247     244     213     212   229   211    201     180
          All age groups3    8,619    7,373    7,024    6,869    6,698  6,251  5,742   5,120    4,949

1 Figures have been rounded to the nearest whole number
2 In some cases age 0 may have been coded where the age of the casualty was not reported
3 Includes cases where age was not reported.




                                    103
8 Casualties: by time of accident and severity: 1996 - 2006
                                                                 Number of casualties
                 1996    1997    1998   1999    2000   2001    2002    2003    2004    2005    2006
                 _____    _____    _____   _____   _____   _____   _____   _____   _____    _____   _____

04.00 to 17.59
Killed             2,005    2,081    2,015   2,036   2,017   1,989   1,952   2,033    1,818   1,804   1,808
KSI1              30,202   29,782    28,425  27,415   26,601  25,500  24,550   23,312   21,393   20,061   19,981
All severities        220,055   228,552   228,480  225,488  224,565  218,605  209,194  202,199   195,201  188,210  179,328

18.00 to 21.59
Killed              824     767     765    712    720    757    774    728     676    704     666
KSI              10,642   10,127    9,616   9,251   8,928   8,860   8,517   7,962    7,363   6,917    6,769
All severities         65,514   66,235    64,628  63,353   63,152  62,164  60,372   56,921   55,433   53,678   50,891

22.00 to 03.59
Killed              769     751     641    674    672    703    705    747     727    693     698
KSI               7,252    6,671    6,209   5,872   6,028   6,193   6,337   5,937    5,593   5,173    5,094
All severities         34,987   33,005    32,038  31,410   32,512  32,450  33,011   31,461   30,191   29,099   28,162


Total2
Killed             3,598    3,599    3,421   3,423   3,409   3,450   3,431   3,508    3,221   3,201   3,172
KSI              48,097   46,583    44,255  42,545   41,564  40,560  39,407   37,215   34,351   32,155   31,845
All severities        320,578   327,803   325,212  320,310  320,283  313,309  302,605  290,607   280,840  271,017  258,404
1 Killed or seriously injured.
2 Includes cases where time was not reported.




9 Casualty rates: by road user type and severity: 1996 - 2006
                                              Casualty rate per 100 million vehicle kilometres/percentage
                 1996    1997    1998   1999    2000   2001    2002    2003    2004    2005    2006
                 ____    ____    ____   ____    ____   ____    ____    ____    ____    ____    ____
Pedal cyclists
Killed              4.9      4.5   4.0    4.2    3.1    3.3    2.9    2.5     3.2    3.3    3.1
KSI1                92       87    83    77     66    63     55     53     54     53     53
All severities          596      597   573    554    489    446    383    374     392    371    349

Motorcycle riders
Killed               11       12    11    12     13    12     11     12     11     10     11
KSI                152      150   146    143    151    143    138    128     121    113    119
All severities          569      573   559    545    580    563    524    477     469    432    429

Car drivers
Killed               0.3      0.3   0.3    0.3    0.3    0.3    0.3     0.3    0.3     0.3    0.3
KSI                4.2      4.1   3.7    3.4    3.4    3.3    3.1     2.8    2.6     2.4    2.3
All severities           36      37    36     35    36    35     33     31     31     30     29

Bus or coach drivers
Killed                0       0    0     0     0    0.1     0      0    0.1      0     0
KSI                1.2      1.5   1.3    1.3    1.0    1.2    1.0     0.8    0.9     0.6    0.7
All severities           16      16    17     17    20    19     17     16     16     16     13

Light goods vehicle drivers
Killed               0.1      0.1   0.1    0.1    0.1    0.1    0.1     0.1    0.1     0.1    0.1
KSI                1.5      1.4   1.4    1.2    1.2    1.1    1.1     1.0    0.8     0.7    0.7
All severities           11      11    11     10    10    9.9    9.5     8.9    7.6     7.3    7.0

Heavy goods vehicle drivers
Killed               0.2      0.1   0.2    0.2    0.1    0.2    0.2     0.1    0.1     0.2    0.1
KSI                1.8      1.8   1.7    1.7    1.7    1.5    1.5     1.3    1.2     1.2    1.1
All severities           10      11    11     11    11    10     9.4     9.1    8.3     8.4    7.3


All drivers and riders2
Killed               0.4      0.4   0.4    0.4    0.4    0.4    0.4     0.4    0.4     0.4    0.4
KSI                5.8      5.7   5.3    5.1    5.0    4.9    4.6     4.4    4.0     3.8    3.7
All severities           41      42    41     40    41    39     37     36     34     33     32

Percentage of all road user casualties accounted for by drivers and riders

Killed               52      54    55    55     56    57     58     59     59     60     60
KSI                54      55    55    56     57    58     58     59     58     59     59
All severities           57      58    59    59     60    60     60     61     61     62     63

1 Killed or seriously injured.
2 Includes driver and riders of other vehicles.




                                       104
10 Vehicles involved and involvement rates: by vehicle type and severity of accident: 1996 - 2006


                                            Number of vehicles/rate per 100 million vehicle kilometres
               1996   1997    1998    1999    2000     2001   2002    2003    2004    2005    2006
              _____   _____   _____   _____   _____    _____   _____    _____   _____   _____   _____
Pedal cycles
Fatal            214    199    167    187    141      145    141    124    144    158     163
  Rate           5.2    4.9    4.2    4.6    3.4      3.4    3.2    2.7    3.4    3.6     3.5
Fatal or serious      3,984   3,795   3,485   3,351   2,937     2,823   2,583   2,544   2,416   2,497    2,584
  Rate            98     93    88     82     71      67    58     56     57     56     56
All severities      25,102   25,200  23,423   23,482   21,055    19,497  17,532   17,472   17,084   17,039   16,611
  Rate           616    617    592    576    506      460    397    387    406    385     361

Motorcycle riders
Fatal            505    570    570    617    695      673    694    783    659    620     667
  Rate            13     14    14     14     15      14    14     14     13     11     13
Fatal or serious      6,511   6,833   6,864   7,291   7,814     7,767   7,920   8,102   7,059   6,854    6,863
  Rate           173    172    167    162    171      161    156    144    137    126     133
All severities      23,798   25,211  25,514   27,122   29,236    30,084  29,503   29,523   26,857   25,870   24,323
  Rate           633    636    621    603    639      625    581    527    521    476     471

Cars
Fatal           3,771   3,979   3,714   3,634   3,516   3,654     3,728   3,773   3,520   3,465   3,483
  Rate           1.0    1.1    1.0    1.0    0.9    1.0      0.9    1.0    0.9    0.9    0.9
Fatal or serious     48,977   48,141  45,341   43,062   41,587  40,745    39,563   36,912   34,416   32,129   31,892
  Rate            14     13    12     11     11    11      10    9.4    8.6    8.1    7.9
All severities      331,091  338,924  337,794  329,866  329,846  321,900    314,568  299,933  291,842  281,810  267,991
  Rate            92     93    91     87     88    84      80     76     73     71     67

Buses or coaches
Fatal            139    129    136    139    136      164    125    119    121     108    118
  Rate           2.8    2.5    2.6    2.6    2.6      3.2    2.4    2.2    2.3     2.1    2.2
Fatal or serious      1,626   1,516   1,487   1,483   1,449     1,433   1,392   1,319   1,237    1,131   1,159
  Rate            32     29    28     28     28      28    27     24     24     22     21
All severities      11,196   11,241  11,762   11,888   11,733    11,521  10,781   10,939   10,573    9,988   9,133
  Rate           223    218    224    224    227      223    207    203    202     193    169

Light goods vehicles
 Fatal            299    309    290    262    279      302    296    320    267    261     274
   Rate           0.6    0.6    0.6    0.5    0.5      0.6    0.5    0.6    0.4    0.4     0.4
 Fatal or serious     3,260   3,167   3,113   2,676   2,620     2,660   2,554   2,509   2,207   2,080    2,092
   Rate           7.1    6.5    6.1    5.2    5.0      5.0    4.6    4.3    3.6    3.3     3.3
 All severities      19,186   20,070  20,083   18,052   17,671    18,314  17,755   17,486   15,728   16,078   15,593
   Rate           42     41    40     35     34      34    32     30     26     26     24

Heavy goods vehicles
Fatal            592    572    595    617    565      588    570    533    472    520     458
  Rate           2.3    2.1    2.1    2.2    2.0      2.1    2.0    1.9    1.6    1.8     1.6
Fatal or serious      3,137   3,187   3,077   3,085   3,033     2,910   2,692   2,456   2,142   2,168    2,071
  Rate            12     12    11     11     11      10    9.5    8.6    7.3    7.5     7.1
All severities      13,582   14,385  14,526   15,191   15,194    14,813  13,480   13,173   12,516   12,120   11,336
  Rate            52     54    52     54     54      53    48     46     43     42     39


All motor vehicles1
 Fatal           5,382   5,622   5,386   5,352   5,282   5,455     5,500   5,614   5,119   5,036   5,072
   Rate           1.2    1.2    1.2    1.1    1.1    1.1      1.1    1.1    1.0    1.0    1.0
 Fatal or serious     64,153   63,506  60,545   58,344   57,277  56,104    54,835   51,861   47,757   44,805   44,615
   Rate           15     14    13     12     12    12      11     11    9.6    9.0    8.8
 All severities     402,001  413,197  413,172  406,401  408,231  399,883    390,273  374,098  362,303  348,773  331,120
   Rate           91     92    90     87     87    84      80     76     73     70     65


All vehicles2
 Fatal           5,601   5,836   5,564   5,547   5,433   5,614     5,647   5,753   5,276   5,204   5,253
   Rate           1.3    1.3    1.2    1.2    1.2    1.2      1.2    1.2    1.0    1.0    1.0
 Fatal or serious     68,234   67,411  64,125   61,814   60,336  59,055    57,509   54,516   50,277   47,380   47,278
   Rate           15     15    14     13     13    12      12     11     10    9.4    9.3
 All severities     427,521  438,877  437,105  430,492  429,943  420,073    408,325  392,022  379,845  366,236  348,059
   Rate           96     97    95     91     91    88      83     79     76     73     68

1 Includes other motor vehicles.
2 Includes other non motor vehicles and cases where vehicle type was not reported




                                  105
11 Breath tests and breath test failures: by drivers and riders involved in accidents: 1996 - 2006

                                                                Number/percentage

                  1996    1997   1998   1999   2000    2001   2002   2003   2004    2005   2006
                  _____   _____   _____   _____   _____    _____   _____   _____   _____   _____   _____

Car drivers
Involved in accidents      331,091  338,924  337,794  329,866  329,846   321,900  314,568  299,933  291,842  281,810  267,991

Number breath tested       133,347  157,373  173,610  175,916  172,840   163,540  159,782  151,442  149,430  149,687  146,564
Percentage of drivers involved    40    46     51    53    52     51    51    50    51     53    55

Number failing breath test1    7,303   7,087   6,690   6,669   7,124    7,264   7,285   7,289   6,655   6,397   5,873
Percentage of drivers
  breath tested           5.5    4.5   3.9    3.8     4.1   4.4    4.6    4.8    4.5     4.3   4.0
  involved in accidents       2.2    2.1   2.0    2.0     2.2   2.3    2.3    2.4    2.3     2.3   2.2


Motorcycle riders
Involved in accidents       23,798  25,211   25,514  27,122  29,236   30,084  29,503  29,523  26,857   25,870  24,323

Number breath tested        7,906   9,926   11,416  12,970  13,945   13,725  12,992  13,178  12,422   12,221  11,884
Percentage of riders involved     33    39     45    48    48     46    44    45    46     47    49

Number failing breath test1     408    428    426    443     442   446    441    510    423     391   374
Percentage of riders
  breath tested           5.2    4.3   3.7    3.4     3.2   3.2    3.4    3.9    3.4     3.2   3.1
  involved in accidents       1.7    1.7   1.7    1.6     1.5   1.5    1.5    1.7    1.6     1.5   1.5


Other motor vehicle drivers
Involved in accidents       47,112  49,062   49,864  49,413  49,149   47,899  46,202  44,642  43,604   41,093  38,806

Number breath tested       17,936  21,687   24,697  25,864  25,915   24,457  23,458  22,656  22,120   21,311  20,822
Percentage of drivers involved    38    44     50    52    53     51    51    51    51     52    54
              1
Number failing breath test     382    445    398    411     401   386    378    351    349     327   347
Percentage of drivers
  breath tested           2.1    2.1   1.6    1.6     1.5   1.6    1.6    1.5    1.6     1.5   1.7
  involved in accidents       0.8    0.9   0.8    0.8     0.8   0.8    0.8    0.8    0.8     0.8   0.9


All driver/riders
Involved in accidents      402,001  413,197  413,172  406,401  408,231   399,883  390,273  374,098  362,303  348,773  331,120

Number breath tested       159,189  188,986  209,723  214,750  212,700   201,722  196,232  187,276  183,972  183,219  179,270
Percentage involved          40    46     51    53    52     50    50    50    51     53    54
              1
Number failing breath test     8,093   7,960   7,514   7,523   7,967    8,096   8,104   8,150   7,427   7,115   6,594
Percentage of driver riders
  breath tested           5.1    4.2   3.6    3.5     3.7   4.0    4.1    4.4    4.0     3.9   3.7
  involved in accidents       2.0    1.9   1.8    1.9     2.0   2.0    2.1    2.2    2.0     2.0   2.0


1 Failed or refused to provide a specimen of breath.




                                      106
12 Accidents, vehicles and casualties: casualties by severity: by road class, built-up
  and non built-up roads: 2006

                                                 Number of accidents/vehicles/casualties

                                            Casualties involved, by severity
                                     ____________________________________________________

                 Accidents     Vehicles       Killed     Seriously      Slightly        All
                           involved                injured       injured    severities
_________________         ________      _______       _____      _______       ______      _______

Motorways
Fatal                 164        406        187          72       136        395
Serious                789       1,631         ..         906       684       1,590
Slight                7,426      16,509         ..          ..     11,403       11,403
All severities            8,379      18,546        187         978      12,223       13,388


Built-up A roads
Fatal                 582        936        619         169       243       1,031
Serious               6,719      11,119         ..        7,197      2,107       9,304
Slight               48,122      91,678         ..          ..     62,989       62,989
All severities           55,423      103,733        619        7,366      65,339       73,324

Built-up other roads1
Fatal                 633       1,007        662         128       230       1,020
Serious               9,769      15,583         ..       10,442      2,641      13,083
Slight               68,879      123,599         ..          ..     87,236      87,236
All severities           79,281      140,189        662        10,570      90,107      101,339

All built-up roads2
Fatal                1,215       1,943       1,281         297       473       2,051
Serious               16,488      26,702         ..       17,639      4,748      22,387
Slight               117,001      215,277         ..         ..     150,225      150,225
All severities           134,704      243,922       1,281       17,936     155,446      174,663


Non built-up A roads
Fatal                1,071       2,131       1,196         449       688       2,333
Serious               4,625       8,666         ..       5,566      2,912       8,478
Slight               22,931      45,394         ..         ..     33,461       33,461
All severities           28,627      56,191       1,196        6,015      37,061       44,272

Non built-up other roads1
Fatal                 476        773        508         176       217        901
Serious               3,044       5,026         ..        3,568      1,857       5,425
Slight               13,931      23,601         ..          ..     19,755       19,755
All severities           17,451      29,400        508        3,744      21,829       26,081

All non built-up roads2
Fatal                1,547       2,904       1,704         625       905       3,234
Serious               7,669      13,692         ..       9,134      4,769       13,903
Slight               36,862      68,995         ..         ..     53,216       53,216
All severities           46,078      85,591       1,704        9,759      58,890       70,353


All speed limits3
Fatal                2,926       5,253       3,172         994      1,514       5,680
Serious               24,946      42,025         ..       27,679      10,201      37,880
Slight               161,289      300,781         ..         ..     214,844      214,844
All severities           189,161      348,059       3,172       28,673     226,559      258,404


1 B roads, C roads and unclassified roads: excludes cases where road class was not reported
2 Excludes motorways.
3 Includes cases where speed limit was not reported.




                                   107
13 Accidents and casualties: by severity, road type and speed limit: 2006
                                                            Number of accidents/casualties

                         Accidents                          Casualties
                _____________________________________________        ______________________________________________
                                                      Seriously     Slightly
                 Fatal    Serious     Slight       All       Killed   injured      injured      All
                 _____     ______      _____       ___      ______   _______      ______       ___

Roundabout
Speed limit
        1
  20 mph               0       2       30       32         0      2        36       38
  30 mph              22      518      6,938     7,478         22     546       8,799     9,367
  40 mph               6      149      1,626     1,781         7     164       2,088     2,259
  50 mph               2       54       421      477         2     57        551      610
  60 mph               7      154      1,525     1,686         7     163       1,955     2,125
  70 mph               5       80       740      825         5     89        953     1,047
All limits2             42      957     11,280     12,279         43    1,021      14,382     15,446

One way street
Speed limit
        1
  20 mph               2       19       79      100         2     20        99      121
  30 mph              34      451      3,234     3,719         34     483       3,943     4,460
  40 mph               0       11       48       59         0     13        71       84
  50 mph               0       2       34       36         0      2        48       50
  60 mph               1       10       82       93         1     10        101      112
All limits2             39      502      3,532     4,073         39     540       4,345     4,924

Single carriageway
Speed limit
        1
  20 mph              13      116      662       791        15     126       782       923
  30 mph              773     12,322     85,143     98,238        803    13,274     111,628     125,705
  40 mph              184     1,294     7,587      9,065        204    1,527      11,583     13,314
  50 mph              81      385     2,007      2,473        89     488      3,330      3,907
  60 mph             1,152     5,658     23,322     30,132       1,275    7,333      38,430     47,038
All limits2           2,203     19,776    118,722     140,701       2,386    22,749     165,755     190,890

Slip road
Speed limit
  20 mph1              0       0        3       3         0      0         3       3
  30 mph               5       42       534      581         5     47        681      733
  40 mph               1       13       110      124         1     14        158      173
  50 mph               3       12       145      160         3     13        205      221
  60 mph               1       37       238      276         1     42        345      388
  70 mph               9       66       784      859         9     73       1,155     1,237
All limits2             19      170      1,814     2,003         19     189       2,547     2,755

Dual carriageway
Speed limit
  20 mph1              0        6       16       22         0      7        17       24
  30 mph              69       937     6,680      7,686        72    1,033       9,329     10,434
  40 mph             102       517     3,653      4,272        112     584       5,477     6,173
  50 mph              35       252     1,922      2,209        36     293       2,822     3,151
  60 mph              42       186     1,335      1,563        45     227       2,006     2,278
  70 mph             367      1,505     11,245     13,117        411    1,876      18,471     20,758
All limits2            615      3,403     24,851     28,869        676    4,020      38,122     42,818

     3
All roads
Speed limit
        1
  20 mph              15      154      827       996        17     166       985      1,168
  30 mph              909     14,365    103,336     118,610        942    15,484     135,359     151,785
  40 mph              293     1,987     13,065     15,345        324    2,305      19,432     22,061
  50 mph              121      709     4,544      5,374        130     857      6,974      7,961
  60 mph             1,204     6,066     26,643     33,913       1,330    7,803      43,061     52,194
  70 mph              384     1,665     12,874     14,923        429    2,058      20,748     23,235
All limits2           2,926     24,946    161,289     189,161       3,172    28,673     226,559     258,404


1 Includes residential 20 mph zones plus areas where by-laws restrict the speed limit to 20mph
2 Includes unknown and other speed limits.
3 Includes unknown and other road types.




                                      108
14 Accidents: by severity, number of casualties involved, built-up and non built-up roads and road class: 2006

                                                                 Number of accidents

                      Fatal accidents                Serious accidents       Slight accidents


Killed            5+  4  3    2   1     1   1   1
Seriously injured      0+  0+  0+   0+   2+     1   0   0   4+   3   2   1    1               All
Slightly injured       0+  0+  0+   0+   0+    0+   1+   0   0+   0+   0+   1+    0    2+    1  accidents
_______________      ____ ____ ____  ____  ____   ____  ____  ____  ____  ____  ____  ____  ____   _____   ____  ________

       1
Built-up roads
A roads           0  0   7   23   33   56   93  370   13   46  335  1,183  5,142  10,485 37,637     55,423
B roads           0  0   2    4    8   26   28  106   8   17  116   385  1,584  3,283 11,466     17,033
Other roads         0  0   1   19   12   38   71  318   17   48  334  1,152  6,108  9,960 44,170     62,248
All built-up roads2     0  0  10   46   53   120  192  794   38  111  785  2,720 12,834  23,728 93,273    134,704


            1
Non built-up roads
A roads           3  4  15   69   78   184  259  459   50  138  491  1,377  2,569  7,074 15,857     28,627
B roads           0  1   1   12   12   36   48  107   7   31  140   424   725  1,590 3,659      6,793
Other roads         0  0   3    9   22   43   42  140   17   33  173   526   968  2,492 6,190     10,658
All non built-up       3  5  19   90  112   263  349  706   74  202  804  2,327  4,262  11,156 25,706     46,078
   2
roads


          3
All speed limits
 Motorways         0  2   2   13   9    35   47   56   4   14   75   293   403  2,455 4,971      8,379
 A roads          3  4  22   92  111   240  352  829   63  184  826  2,560  7,711  17,559 53,494     84,050
 B roads          0  1   3   16   20    62   76  213   15   48  256   809  2,309  4,873 15,125     23,826
 Other roads        0  0   4   28   34    81  113  458   34   81  507  1,678  7,076  12,452 50,360     72,906
Total3            3  7  31   149  174   418  588 1,556   116  327 1,664   5,340 17,499  37,,950    189,161



1 Excludes motorways.
2 Includes cases where road class was not reported
3 Includes cases where speed limit was not reported.




                                      109
15a Accidents: by daylight and darkness, road surface condition, built-up and non built-up roads
  and severity: 2006
                                                           Number of accidents
                          Daylight                     Darkness


                                                                   All2
                     Wet or    Snow                 Wet or    Snow
                                     1                        1
               Dry     flood    or ice     All      Dry   flood     or ice   All   accidents
__________________      ____    _____    _____      ___      ____  _____     _____    ___   ________

Motorways
Fatal             67      10      0      77       52    35        0    87     164
Serious            400     116      6      522      143   119        5   267     789
Slight           3,922    1,376      22     5,323     1,095   970       35  2,103    7,426
All severities       4,389    1,502      28     5,922     1,290  1,124       40  2,457    8,379


Built-up roads3
Fatal             532     120      1      653      335   223      4     562    1,215
Serious           8,578    2,141      55    10,784     3,395  2,224      76    5,704    16,488
Slight           66,498    19,218     573    86,399     17,445  12,667     452   30,602   117,001
All severities       75,608    21,479     629    97,836     21,175  15,114     532   36,868   134,704


Non built-up roads3
Fatal             648     277      12      937      306   293      11     610    1,547
Serious           3,606    1,610      85     5,302     1,128  1,141      95    2,367    7,669
Slight           16,485    9,712     586    26,822     4,397  5,188     441   10,040    36,862
All severities       20,739    11,599     683    33,061     5,831  6,622     547   13,017    46,078


All speed limits4
Fatal           1,247      407      13     1,667      693   551      15    1,259    2,926
Serious          12,584     3,867     146    16,608     4,666  3,484     176    8,338    24,946
Slight          86,905    30,306    1,181    118,544     22,937  18,825     928   42,745   161,289
All severities      100,736    34,580    1,340    136,819     28,296  22,860    1,119   52,342   189,161

1  Includes cases where road surface condition was not reported
2  Includes cases where lighting condition was not reported
3  Excludes motorways.
4  Includes cases where speed limit was not reported.



15b Casualties: by daylight and darkness, road surface condition, built-up and non built-up roads
   and severity: 2006
                                                           Number of casualties
                          Daylight                     Darkness


                                                                   All2
                     Wet or    Snow                 Wet or    Snow
                                     1                        1
               Dry     flood    or ice     All      Dry   flood     or ice   All   casualties
___________________     ____    _____    _____      ___      ____  _____     _____    ___   _______

Motorways
Killed             78      12      0      90       58    39        0    97     187
Serious            486     133      6      625      195   150        8   353     978
Slight           6,365    2,271      40     8,679     1,891  1,590       60  3,544    12,223
All severities       6,929    2,416      46     9,394     2,144  1,779       68  3,994    13,388


Built-up roads3
Killed            552     124      1      677      357   242      5     604    1,281
Serious           9,079    2,293      58    11,440     3,846  2,555      86    6,496    17,936
Slight           85,544    26,145     725    112,549     23,979  18,192     678   42,897   155,446
All severities       95,175    28,562     784    124,666     28,182  20,989     769   49,997   174,663


Non built-up roads3
Killed            709     306      16     1,031      343   316      14     673    1,704
Serious           4,412    2,089      87     6,589     1,519  1,527     121    3,170    9,759
Slight           26,161    15,488     841    42,538     7,251  8,423     660   16,352    58,890
All severities       31,282    17,883     944    50,158     9,113  10,266     795   20,195    70,353


All speed limits4
Killed           1,339      442      17     1,798      758   597      19    1,374    3,172
Serious          13,977     4,515     151    18,654     5,560  4,232     215   10,019    28,673
Slight          118,070    43,904    1,606    163,766     33,121  28,205    1,398   62,793   226,559
All severities      133,386    48,861    1,774    184,218     39,439  33,034    1,632   74,186   258,404

1  Includes cases where road surface condition was not reported
2  Includes cases where lighting condition was not reported
3  Excludes motorways.
4  Includes cases where speed limit was not reported.




                                       110
16a Accidents: by daylight and darkness, weather condition, built-up and non built-up roads
  and severity: 2006
                                                             Number of accidents
                         Daylight                         Darkness
                                                                        1
                                                                     All
              Fine    Raining   Snowing     Fog        Fine   Raining   Snowing    Fog   accidents
__________________     _____   _______    _______     ___       _____  _______    _______    ___   ________

Motorways
Fatal             71      3        0     1         67    13        0    4      164
Serious           440      66        4     1         199    52        0    9      789
Slight           4,446     725       22    31        1,492    485        13   38     7,426
All severities       4,957     794       26    33        1,758    550        13   51     8,379


Built-up roads2
Fatal            595      42        1    1         474    68       2     3     1,215
Serious          9,575     942        19    27        4,409    969      18     61    16,488
Slight          73,336    9,144       257   230       22,453   5,936      94    305    117,001
All severities      83,506    10,128       277   258       27,336   6,973      114    369    134,704


Non built-up roads2
Fatal            810     100        3    8         481    91       4     10     1,547
Serious          4,494     617        24    41        1,774    423      18     47     7,669
Slight          21,577    3,901       190   243        7,011   2,089      87    271    36,862
All severities      26,881    4,618       217   292        9,266   2,603      109    328    46,078


All speed limits3
Fatal           1,476      145        4    10        1,022    172       6     17     2,926
Serious         14,509     1,625        47    69        6,382   1,444      36    117    24,946
Slight          99,359    13,770       469   504       30,956   8,510      194    614    161,289
All severities     115,344    15,540       520   583    &nb